The vast majority of platinum production in the world comes from South Africa and Russia.
Platinum is silvery-white – it was once known as “white gold”, and it has a number of useful properties, which explains its application in various industries.
It is extremely resistant to darkening and corrosion (making it known as “noble metal”) and also very soft and pliable, making it easy to mold.
It is also plastic, which allows it to be easily stretched on the wire and does not react, which means that it does not oxidize and is not affected by conventional acids.
Platinum – one of the transition metals, a group that includes gold, silver, copper and titanium – and most of the elements in the middle of the periodic table.
The atomic structure of these metals means that they can easily bind to other elements. Platinum is widely known for being used in jewelry production, but its main application extends to catalysts, electrical contacts, pacemakers, drugs and magnets.
Here are 10 interesting facts you may not know about the dam.
1. About 50 percent of cancer patients currently use platinum-containing drugs, and some of these drugs, such as cisplatin, are also used to treat tumors and cancer in animals. Platinum is considered a biocompatible metal because it is non-toxic and stable, so it does not react and does not adversely affect body tissues. Recent studies have also shown that platinum inhibits the growth of some cancer cells.
2. According to many analysts, platinum production in the coming years is unlikely to grow. Most (about 80 percent) of the dam is mined in South Africa. About 10 percent is mined in Russia, the rest is in North and South America. Because platinum and other platinum group metals (PGMs) are not usually found in large quantities, they are often by-products of other metals. South African producers have already mined a dam that is close to the earth’s surface. Today, producers have to dig the earth’s crust far for metal. Deeper mining leads to higher production costs and less overall production of goods.
3. Almost half of the extracted platinum is used in catalytic converters – the part of the car that reduces toxic gases into less toxic emissions. Platinum and other platinum metals can withstand the high temperatures required for oxidation reactions that reduce emissions.
4. A cylindrical piece of platinum and a platinum alloy is used as an international standard for measuring kilograms. In the 1880s there were about 40 such cylinders, weighing about 2.2 pounds. or 1 pound, were distributed worldwide.
5. Platinum group metals or PGM – one of the rarest metals found on earth. There are two subgroups of PGM: elements of the palladium group – platinum elements (PPGE) and elements of the iridium group – platinum groups (IPGE). The first group consists of platinum, palladium and rhodium. The second consists of iridium, osmium and ruthenium. There are no PGMs that fade and they are very resistant to heat and chemicals. They are all excellent conductors of electricity.
6. Objects belonging to 700 BC. E., contained dam. Other PGMs made their way onto the stage only in the 19th century. Plastic platinum, which is obtained only after purification to essentially pure metal, was first produced by the French physicist PF Shabano in 1789; it was fabricated in a goblet, which was presented to Pope Pius VI. The discovery of palladium was announced in 1802 by the English chemist William Wolostan, who called it the asteroid Pallas. Vulastan later said he had discovered another element present in platinum ore – rhodium. At the discovery of iridium (named after Iris, the rainbow goddess because of the variegated color of its salts) and osmium (from the Greek word “smell” because of the chlorine-like odor of its volatile oxide) the English claimed that chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803.
7. London is a center for platinum trade, but physical delivery usually takes place in Zurich, Switzerland. The NYMEX CME division offers platinum futures contracts. Each futures contract represents 50 ounces of metal. The price of platinum tends to rise and fall given global industrial conditions. The price of platinum peaked in 2008 at $ 2,300 an ounce before the global economic crisis of 2008.
8. Unlike gold and silver, which could be easily isolated in a relatively pure state by simple fire processing, platinum metals require complex aqueous chemical treatment to isolate and identify them. Because these methods were not available until the early 19th century, the identification and isolation of the platinum group lagged behind silver and gold by thousands of years. In addition, the high melting points of these metals limited their application until researchers developed methods for consolidating and processing platinum into useful forms.
9. The transformation of platinum into fine jewelry began around 1900, but although this addition remains important today, it was soon overshadowed by industrial use. After World War II, the expansion of molecular conversion methods in oil refining created a great demand for the catalytic properties of platinum metals. This demand grew even more in the 1970s, when automotive emission standards in the United States and other European countries led to the use of platinum metals in the catalytic conversion of exhaust gases.
10. Platinum mining is both capital and labor-intensive. To obtain one troy ounce (31,135 g) of pure platinum may take up to 6 months and 7 to 12 tons of ore. The first step in this process is the grinding of the dam containing the ore, and the immersion in a reagent containing water – a process known as “foam flotation”. During flotation the air is pumped through an ore-water suspension. Platinum particles are chemically attached to oxygen and rise to the surface with foam, which is removed for further refining. After drying, the concentrated powder still contains less than 1% platinum. Then in electric furnaces it is heated to a temperature above 2732 ° F (1500 ° C), and the air is blown again, removing impurities of iron and sulfur. Electrolytic and chemical methods are used to extract nickel, copper and cobalt, resulting in a concentrate of 15-20% PGM. Aqua regia (a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid) is used to dissolve platinum metal from a mineral concentrate by creating chlorine that attaches to the platinum to form chloroplatinic acid. In the final step, ammonium chloride is used to convert chloroplatinic acid to ammonium hexachloroplatinate, which can be burned to form pure platinum.
The good news is that not all platinum is obtained from primary sources in this long and expensive process. According to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) statistics, about 30% of the 8.53 million ounces of platinum produced worldwide each year come from recycled sources. The recycling of the dam helps to promote and protect a valuable natural resource in the future.
The dam can be removed from a variety of sources:
-bars and ingots
-mats and grains
-sponges and powder
-wired and gauze crucibles
-laboratory and thermocouple wire
-solutions aqua regia.
The processing conditions of the dam are adjusted depending on the type and amount of dam scrap you have and the service you need.