Flight from landing to touch


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Although airline flight attendants are concerned about airfare, timely performance, congestion and lost luggage, there is much more to the flight process between the two cities. Indeed, it is more of an orchestra among airlines, airports, government agencies and many other companies. The sequence of events shows this.

1. At the airport.

Preparations for a flight or regular airline flight, whether it’s a one-hour hop or a 15- or more hour intercontinental flight, begin long before the passenger leaves, and the passenger leaves for the airport and the plane pulls itself out of its previous section.
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The passengers themselves are gradually checked, the luggage is labeled, sorted and corrected. The load is weighed and displayed. The planes are cleaned, supplied, serviced and maintained.
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The cockpit crew arrives at the airport for a briefing, but the former reviews any special cargo, flight plan and weather, and calculates the final fuel, which includes the minimum required for travel, as well as the reserves. keeps and distracts
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Given this process, either manually or on a computer load sheet, which lists, builds various cargo cargoes, and ensures that no one exceeds their maximum number.
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For example, the Airbus A-330-200, with 15 crew members, will have 124,915 kilograms of dry operating weight (DOW), which will be added to its calculated unloading fuel (TOF) of, say, 77,600 kilograms, giving it 202,515 kilograms of operating weight.
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The 18,750-kilogram cargo, which consisted of 85 men, 161 women, one child and one newborn, will add to its 8,085 kilograms of dead cargo, which consists of 4,320 kilograms of cargo and 3,630 kilograms of cargo. In combination with the previous total weight of the post office, it would result in 26,915 kilograms of dry operating weight, which, adding 124,915 kilograms of dry operating weight, would produce 151,750 kilograms of zero fuel weight.
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Now added to its 77,600 kilograms of fuel unloading, this A-330 will weigh 229,350 kilograms, which is just shy of its 230,000-kilogram maximum. After 68,200 kilograms of passenger fuel penetrated, it would weigh 161,150 kilograms, which is much lower than the maximum of 182,000 kilograms.
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In addition to being dependent on many of the functions discussed earlier, the final increase in fuel additionally depends on the captain’s discretion. For example, a 56.200-kilogram final-fuel aircraft will lead to 55,800 kilograms of fuel extraction after about 400 kg of taxi fuel, and the 44,900-kilogram required for the flight plan will be refunded. York-Vienna flight A-330-200 with a seven-hour, 12-minute enroute time, but an eight-hour 28-minute resistance (to dry the tanks).
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2. Near the gate.

The weight and balance function from which these calculations are derived implies both the weight gain of the load sheet and the calculations of its load distribution, ensuring that the aircraft is loaded in its center of gravity (CG) envelope. , while the balance of the flight is achieved by placing the decoration of its stabilizer. Although it is automatically determined in the rooster, it can be calculated manually, as can happen with a Boeing 767 aircraft.
All of these calculations are in addition to setting speed and ignition settings.

Although the position of the aircraft was recorded and maintained in its inertial navigation system (INS), when it last arrived from its last section, along with the direction of the true northern compass, without magnetic fluctuations, the earth’s snow and movement, it is reorganized and re-entered. Adhering to the coordinates of the width and length of the terminal building, expressed in degrees north, south, east and west, and minutes. For example, JFK’s position is 40 degrees, 38.9 minutes north latitude և 076 degrees, 46.9 minutes west longitude.
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3. Taxi.

Two important omissions precede the movement of the plane. The first, from customs clearance to delivery, allows it to receive and track its flight plan, and the second, to control the ground on the tower, allows it to take a taxi to an active runway. Permission to the first floor is permitted by the terminal’s own tower, which monitors arrivals, departures, moves to the garage to its ramp, on which it has jurisdiction.
The headset is connected to the outer port of the aircraft, the service or the engine of the ramp staff monitor, or driven by an intercity connection or via a ramp. Some airports, such as Atlanta-Hartsfield International, allow narrow-body aircraft to be self-propelled.

During the taxi, which is no different from the ground movement of the car, it was obtained by advancing the windpipe, the movement of the head of the nose wheel located on the lower left side of the captain, the brake applications of the nose, taxis and preliminary checklists. At the end of the year, the screening of the Oxygen Mask is shown by flight attendants or in pre-arranged films in the cabin.

Because the main wheels are located a considerable distance from the nose wheel, ground turns are made at almost 90 degree angles.

A two-bell call indicates that the boat is about to arrive.

4. Take.

One or more permits have been issued, such as “keeping short”, “keeping the position and keeping”, and removing (or) cleaning) from the tower. The plane places the plane on the center line of the runway. The lighting shows the length. The amber marks the last 3,000 feet, the red and white the last 2,000, and the last 1,000 red.

The throttle settings depend on the overall weight of the aircraft, the length of the runway, the surface conditions, the need to clear obstacles, and the desire to extend engine life.

Jet engine propulsion is based on the principle of reaction, as expressed in Sir Isaac Newton’s third law of motion, which states that “for every operation there is an equal and opposite reaction.” Although it may seem complicated at first, a clean jet engine (without external motors) involves a four-way process of air intake. combustion, during which it is mixed with fuel and heated, then it expands. compression, during which it connects the “turbine” through the shaft connecting the compressor. : exhaust.

After the air leaves, it responds to the advance of the aircraft and to the advance.

The turbofan consists of traditional components of power plants with a drilled fan, the rotating blades of which send slower, colder and quieter air around the hot core before the exhaust cone comes out. This is expressed by the term “bypass ratio”, which is the ratio of the shock generated by the bypass air to that produced by the hot section. With a typical high-throughput coefficient, a turbofan can have a bypass ratio of about five to one և and can generate up to 100,000 pounds of boost aircraft, such as the Boeing 777-300ER.

Although rooster instrumentation, such as N1 fan speed and fuel flow, is recorded by power plant settings, the most important factor is its engine compression ratio (EPR), which is the ratio of turbine emissions to compressor input pressures.

There are three parameters: pre-calculated unloading speed, which vary according to the plane, engine power, gross weight, flight length and surface conditions, atmospheric conditions and power parameters.

The first is V1 (for speed), speed or non-speed. If there is an anomaly or an emergency at this time, there is still a long way to go before you can safely stop.

The second, VR, is the speed of rotation of the aircraft, at which point the stabilizers are tilted so that the aircraft can “rotate” on its main revolver, raising the level of its angular attack (AOA) to the flowing air and reach the elevator. The insufficient runway remains for the stopped flight at this time. Attempts have been made without the presence of the detainee’s bed, with excessive pressure, possible injuries and injuries expected.

The third speed, V2, is the safe climb speed, which is usually calculated as V2 + 10 knots.

Everyone, of course, differs in the type of aircraft, version և engine, but the V-rotation speed includes 137 knots for McDonnell-Douglas DC-9-30 with Pratt and Whitney JT8D-15 engines, 147 knots for Boeing 737. 200 with JT8D-15A, 134 knots for Fokker F.28-4000 Rolls Royce RB.183-555-15A Spey engines, 184 knots for McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30s General Electric CF6-50C2s with 165 knots for Lockheed L-1011-200 Rolls Royce RB.211-524B turbofan, 177 knots with Boeing 747-300 Pratt և Whitney JT9D-7R4G2 turbochargers և 153 knots Airbus A-300-600R for General Electric CF6 -80C6A5 turbofan.

Needless to say, none of this would have been possible without the elevator produced by T. Created by differential pressure between the upper and lower surfaces, the former reduces the air passing through it and the dehydration produced by it, as it adheres to the boundary layer on its trailing edge.

This can be seen in the simple principle of physics, which states that “when the speed increases, the pressure decreases.” Because objects always take the path of least resistance, the number moves upward, creating an elevator. This can be compounded by several other factors: plan (d), aspect ratio (the ratio of its length to its width), sweep, area, speed, temperature and air density.

In order to further improve their capabilities, commercial aircraft are slowly raising the elevator, at the same time reducing the height by using height-leading, fat-growing leading edge pieces / folds and peripheral folds, usually Fowler type, which differ from single-double-double-triple. The complete expansion of the two, only in the case of the structure used during the landing, increases the area by 20% and increases the chance by 80%.

With the exception of the Airbus A-300, several modern aircraft are able to exit without a certain degree of extreme edge corrugation.

Immediately after the transfer, the aircraft will be instructed to contact the departure control, which is usually located in the area of ​​the object in the window at the base of the control tower, and can provide height gaps and radar separating the route. There will be a general instruction. “One-sixth of zero transatlantic weight, go up and keep one zero thousand.”

The planes follow the scheduled flight to the airport, known as “standard tools departure” or “SID”. For example, the departure of Ventura Seven from Los Angeles International Airport after the 24R flight of the mountain range implies “climbing up to 251 degrees to the radiating vectors (VTU VOR / DME), the intersection of SMO (Santa Monica) on R-154 (154 degrees). ) Below 3000 or below, (after that) continues (route designated). All planes are expected to pay a refund five minutes after departure. ”

Similarly, the launch of the standard Compton 2G at London’s Heathrow International Airport at London’s Heathrow International Airport, using a frequency of 123.9 MHz, requires a pre-flight flight from London’s VOR, measuring the distance to the right (seven miles DME). Woodley NDB (non-directional beacon) for traversing 273 degrees. Finally, the aircraft must maintain a 285-degree direction to the Compton VOR, but should not rise above 6,000 feet if it has not been given precise precision.

5. Cruise.

Only a few minutes after leaving the ground, after a positive ascent, the pedestrian is pulled back by about 1,000 feet, usually requiring a nose drop.

The rotations of the nose wheel are canceled by the wheel well, while the main wheels stop using the brake.

All aircraft operating at all types of terminal control areas (TCA) airports must have transmitters and encoders, and the air traffic control provided by the four-digit code identifies it on the radars.

Based on gross weight and speed, the ultra-high-end devices with advanced tracks are often pulled back completely or gradually, leaving the “clean” number.

In its current flight plan, the aircraft will be delivered to the Air Traffic Control Center (ATCC) by radio, such as “Boston Center, this is a transatlantic one-six-zero, and with you a flight rate of three to five-zero.”

In the cabin, most likely, the flight service has started.

The height, whether in the form of an older, traditional “steam water meter” or a new cathode ray tube (CRT) display, shows the height and height of the plane, but they don’t have to be the same, and both can be very different. By taking off and touching.

As the plane ascends, the static pressure fed around the height is reduced, and the capsule inside the instrument expands, transmitting this change, by mechanical contact, to the rooster, thus measuring and showing the height, which, surprisingly, may have : small relationship with the actual altitude of the aircraft.

If, for example, it flies at an altitude of 5,000 meters, it is possible that it is above sea level (MSL), but if it crosses a 2,000-foot mountain, it is only at 3,000 feet (AGL). Which, of course, made the video an overnight sensation.

The topographic variations, from the small lake to Mount Everest, are innumerable, and the height-to-height equation occurs only if it is above sea level.

To improve the accuracy of the accuracy, the height of the radio is used, which goes beyond the radio waves and measures the exact height from the ground, is used in the approach, when the plane is usually below 2,500 feet.

Although the pressure gauge is set to equal pressure at the designated airport, it is given the standard pressure setting in navigation, which is 29.92 inches of mercury (Hg) in North America at և 1013.2 billion (mB) elsewhere.

Altitudes above 28,000 feet are considered flight levels (FL). 36,000 feet, then, the flight level is three to six-zero, which excludes the last two digits.

The speeds are also different, but are measured in nodes, equivalent to a nautical mile. Ground speed (GS) is the measurement of aircraft speed relative to the ground, and real air speed (TAS) is its speed compared to the air it travels. Wind speed and direction cause fluctuations.

The navigation is carried out by a number of methods, adhering to the flight control of the aircraft, the flight plan of the instrument flight rules (FHM). The first of these is VOR.

From 108.0 to 117.9 MHz, the band transmits a very high frequency band (and thus its “VOR” marking), it provides linear guidance to more than 700 stations in the United States, and only from the United States, creating reports or roadblocks that, when connected, , produce “winning” airplanes and “planes” above and below 18,000 feet, which collect aircraft.

VOR signals can be received at a distance of up to 230 nautical miles, possibly creating 460 miles of air, and the position of the aircraft to or from that side is considered, respectively, the input and output beam, as it first flies to it, then away from it. :

So the footage shows a radio magnetic display (RMI) needle pointing to a vertical orange bar in the ground-based beacon and main compass system of the aircraft.

The VOR beacon is a standard combination of distance measurement equipment (DME), which transmits ultra-high frequency (UHF) tape at 962 to 1213 MHz and transmits digital readings over longitudinal distances via aircraft transponders. to the lighthouse itself.

The latest and most accurate method of navigation is created by 32-Earth orbital positioning satellites (GPS), which determine the time difference between sending and receiving a signal during the triangulation process, which includes three satellite-equipped satellites themselves: giving a number of readings.

Չորս նման արբանյակների օգտագործումը, որը վերացնում է իոնոսֆերա և տրոֆոսֆերա առաջացման ձգձգումները, բերում է լայնության, երկայնության, բարձրության և ժամանակի որոշման:

Քանի որ թռիչքային պլանի կոորդինատները կարող են տեղակայվել միայն 25 մղոն հեռավորության վրա, 5000 մղոն հատվածը կարող է բաղկացած լինել դրանցից մոտ 200-ով կամ շատ ավելին, քան VOR / DME անցակետերը: Այնուամենայնիվ, նրանք դուրս են գալիս օդանավից, և դրանց միջև հաշվարկված ժամանակի հաշվարկը (ETE) և վառելիքի այրվածքն է:

Ատլանտյան խաչմերուկները, լայնության և երկայնության կոորդինատների միջոցով, գտնվում են Ատլանտյան հսկիչ տարածքի ենթակայության տակ, որը բաժանվում է արևմտյան տարածքով Գրենլանդից մինչև Կարիբյան ավազանում և վերահսկվում է Գանդեր և Նյու Յորք, իսկ արևելքը ՝ 300 աստիճանից և վերահսկվում է Շանոնի և Պրեստրիկի համատեղ օդային երթևեկության տարածքի կողմից նշանակված Շանվիկը:

Տրանսատլանտյան խաչմերուկների աննախադեպ քանակն ու հաճախականությունը տեղավորելու համար հյուսիս-ատլանտյան կես զուգահեռ ՝ Հյուսիսատլանտյան զուգահեռ ուղիները, որոնք հիմնված են լավագույն մատչելի երթուղիների և առավել բարենպաստ քամիների վրա, հրապարակվում են օրական երկու անգամ:

Նամակավոր ՝ արևելք ընկած հատվածները ներառում են ալֆա, բրավո, Չարլի, դելտա, էխո և ֆոքստրոտ: Այն ուժի մեջ է Կանադայի և Իռլանդիայի / Միացյալ Թագավորության ափերի միջև անցումների համար, դրանք բաղկացած են տասը րոպե տևողությամբ նույն և 60 ծովային մղոնից տարբեր ուղիների երկայնական բաժանումներից և 2000-ոտանի միևնույն և նույնական բարձրությունից տարբեր ուղղահայաց բաժանումներից:

Արտաքին, բարձր արագությամբ աիլերոնային կողպեքներն ապահովում են բանկային նավարկության նվազագույն անկյուններ: Չնայած նրան, որ բարձրությունները թռիչքի պլան են նշանակված, համախառն քաշը, շարժիչի ուժը և թևի հնարավորությունը կարող են ի սկզբանե պահանջել քայլերի բարձրանում, այսինքն ՝ աստիճանաբար բարձրացվող բարձրությունները, որոնք նպաստվում են վառելիքի այրման և քաշի իջեցմանը, չնայած անձնակազմերը կարող են թռիչքի տարբեր մակարդակներ պահանջել `խուսափելու կամ նվազագույնի հասցնելու համար: եղանակի և տուրբուլենտության պատճառած ուղևորի անհանգստությունը: Հնարավորության դեպքում նույնիսկ տարբեր հետքեր կարող են պահանջվել:

Վառելիքի սպառման և շնչափողի պարամետրերը տարբերվում են ըստ ինքնաթիռի, դրա համախառն քաշի, բարձրության և թռիչքի ռեժիմի: Վերելքի ժամանակ բեռնաթափման / շրջակա միջավայրի (TOGA) կալանքի տակ գտնվող լիակատար շնչափողը կարող է հանգեցնել Boeing 747-400- ի վրա վառելիքի մեկ ժամվա ընթացքում 32 տոննա վառելիքի այրմանը, չնայած որ այս պարամետրը կարող է պահպանվել միայն սակավ քչերի համար: րոպեներ, մինչև այն օդափոխվի, մինչդեռ այն կրճատվելու է մինչև մեկ երրորդ ՝ տասից մինչև 12 տոննա:

Չնայած իր առաջխաղացմանը, Aerospatiale-British Aerospace Concorde- ն, այն պատճառով, որ այն հազվագյուտ օդը, որում նա գերձայնային խաչքար էր իրականացնում և թևի արմատային կոնֆիգուրացիայում մեծ տրամագծով տուրբոֆաներ տեղադրելու անհնարինությունը, պահպանեց իր Rolls Royce- ի լիակատար շնչափող պարամետրերը, այնուհետև հագեցած Օլիմպուսը: շարժիչները ողջ թռիչքի ընթացքում: Օդը շրջանցող դանդաղ և սառը եղանակը անարդյունավետ կլիներ նման մթնոլորտում առաջ մղելու արտադրության մեջ: Այնուամենայնիվ, քթի և օդային տարածքի գերտաքացման սահմաններից խուսափելու համար նրան տրվել է բլոկի բարձրություն, որով այն կարող է դանդաղ բարձրանալ, քանի որ վառելիքի այրման քաշի կրճատումը այլապես խարխլում էր իր երբևէ գերազանցող արագությունը:

Modernանկացած ժամանակակից ինքնաթիռի անբաժանելի և անփոխարինելի է թռիչքների կառավարման համակարգը (FMS): Տեղակայված է նավախցիկի կենտրոնական վահանակում կապիտան և առաջին սպայակազմի միջև, այն առաջարկում է ինտեգրված իներցիոն նավիգացիա, կատարողական և վառելիքի կառավարման գործառույթներ ՝ հնարավորություն տալով անթիվ տեղեկատվության էջերը կամ տեղադրվել կամ խնդրվել համարակալված և թողարկված ստեղնաշարի միջոցով, ներառյալ օդանավակայանի SID- ները: և STAR- ները և օդանավի ծագումը դեպի նպատակակետ թռիչքի պլանը:

Համակարգի միջոցով autothrottle- ը իր VNAV (ուղղահայաց նավիգացիա) ռեժիմում պահպանում է պատշաճ շարժիչի ճնշման գործակիցը բարձրանալու, նավարկության և ծագման ժամանակ: Դրանից ավելին, այնուամենայնիվ, այն ստանում և վերամշակում է մարդկային ուղեղի հնարավորությունների երբեմն այն պատնեշը, ինչպիսին է N1 օդափոխիչի արագությունը, վառելիքի հոսքը և հողի արագությունը ՝ միշտ ապահովելով օպտիմալ կատարումը ընտրված պարամետրերի համաձայն, ինչպես լավագույն ժամանակն է: նվազագույն վառելիք, առավելագույն միջակայք և ամենացածր ծախս:

6. Ծագում և վայրէջք.

Ստանալով իր նախնական իջեցումը օդային ճանապարհի երթևեկության վերահսկման կենտրոնից, որի իրավասությունն է ներկայումս ՝ օդանավը սկսում է մեկից մինչև երկաստիճան, 1000 ֆ / վ բարձրության կորուստ, որն այժմ ծածկված է ավելի ու ավելի բարձրաձայն սայթաքումներով, մինչդեռ թռիչքների սպասավորներն ապահովում են տնակը: , փակելով բոլոր գայլի խցիկները և գզրոցները, ապահովելով, որ նստատեղերը գտնվում են իրենց ուղղահայաց դիրքերում, ամրագոտիները ամրացված են, որ փոխադրվող ուղեբեռը չի խոչընդոտում որևէ միջանցքի, որ վերգետնյա պահեստի խցիկները փակի, և որ դասի վարագույրների բաժանարարները բաց են, և գուցե վերարկուներն ու այլ հագուստները վերադարձնեն առաջին և գործարար դասի ուղևորներին:

Խցիկների ճնշումը հավասար է ժամանման օդանավակայանին: Տերմինալի ավտոմատ տեղեկատվական ծառայություն (ATIS), նախապես և աստիճանաբար արձանագրված հաղորդագրություն ՝ ամպի ծածկույթի, առաստաղի, տեսանելիության, տեղումների տեսակների և չափի վերաբերյալ (առկայության դեպքում), ջերմաստիճանի, հովացման կետի, քամու արագության և ուղղության, բարոմետրիկ ճնշման բարձրության բարձրության բարձրացման վերաբերյալ, ակտիվ թռիչքուղին (ներ) ը, գործիքի մոտեցման տեսակը և հատուկ տեղեկությունները, ինչպիսիք են դաշտային պայմանները, ավտոճանապարհի փակումը, չգործող օբյեկտները և քամու ճառագայթը, մուտք են գործում և թույլատրվում են, քանի որ անհրաժեշտ են թարմացումներ, ինչի արդյունքում «տեղեկատվական ալֆա», «տեղեկատվական բրավո, “” տեղեկություններ Չարլիին: ”

Մաքսազերծումը ՝ 14,000 ոտքից ցածր, արդեն հանձնվել է համապատասխան ժամանողների վերահսկողությանը: Շնչափողի պարամետրերը, ամենայն հավանականությամբ, պարապ են:

Ինչպես եղել է գործիքի ստանդարտ մեկնելու կամ SID- ի հետ մեկնելուց հետո, մոտեցումներն ունեն իրենց գործընկերոջը `ժամանման ստանդարտ ուղիները կամ STAR- ները, չնայած որ օդային երթևեկության հսկողության վեկտորը բարձրացնում է տարածությունները վատ եղանակային և (կամ) գագաթային երթևեկության պատճառով, ինչպես նաև ինքնաթիռներ տեղադրելը: տարածված են VOR- ներում, որոնց ընթացքում նրանք հետապնդում են չորս ծովային մղոն վազքուղիի օրինակներ:

Օրինակ, Ֆորտ Լաուդերդեյլի / Հոլիվուդյան միջազգային օդանավակայանում գտնվող Dekal Four- ի ժամանումը թվարկում է երեք անցում ՝ Ֆրիպորտպորտից, Նասաուից և Ուրուսից: Միջինը ՝ Նասաուից, Բահամյան նահանգից, ենթադրում է 315 ճառագայթը 300 աստիճանի խորանարդի վրա և ZQA VOR / DME- ից 6.000 ոտնաչափ բարձրության վրա, նախքան ZBV 100 ռադիալարը խոչընդոտել ZBV VORTAC- ին (նավիգացիոն օգնություն, որը բաղկացած է համահեղինակային VHF ամենատարածված միջակայք – VOR – փարոս և մարտավարական օդային նավիգացիոն համակարգ – TACAN – փարոս), շարունակելով Քարիի 100 ռադիալարի վրա 280 աստիճանի վերնագրով, դեռևս 6,000 ոտքի վրա և վերջապես ընդհատելով 300 ռադիալար 300 աստիճանի վրա և 4,000 ոտք պահելով Դեկալին: «Այսպիսով, Դեկալից վերևից, ռադիոլոկացիոն վեկտորներից ակնկալվում է վերջնական մոտեցման դասընթաց»:

Մոտեցման տեսակները տարբերվում են տեսողականից, VOR / DME, ILS և զուգակցված տեսողական-ILS- ից, ի թիվս այլոց:

ILS- ը, գործիքների վայրէջքի համակարգը, ճշգրիտ մոտեցում է ցուցաբերում տասից մինչև 50 ծովային մղոն, երեք աստիճանի սահադաշտով, դեպի այն երկաթուղային կայանով հագեցած թռիչքուղիներ, որոնք տեղակայված են ինչպես տեղական, այնպես էլ ռադիոկապի միջոցով, որն առաջարկում է կենտրոնի գծի ղեկավարում, և ինքնին սահադաշտ , ինչը հեշտացնում է պրոֆիլի ուղղորդումը հպման կետին:

ILS- ի երեք նշանառիչ փնջեր, որոնք փոխանցում են 75 ՄՀց հաճախականությամբ, ցույց են տալիս մնացած հեռավորությունը մինչև այս կետը. Արտաքին մարկեր (OM), որը գտնվում է հպումից մինչև հինգ ծովային մղոն հեռավորության վրա, միջին նշիչը (MM) `մեկից մինչև 0.5 մղոն հեռավորության վրա, իսկ ներքին նշանը (IM) ՝ շեմին:

Առաստաղի արագությունները տարբեր են օդանավերով, ինչպիսիք են Boeing 727-200- ի համար 137 հանգույց `Pratt և Whitney JT8D-17 շարժիչներով, 142 հանգույց` McDonnell-Douglas DC-8-71 համար, CFM-56-2-C5 տուրբոֆաններով, 146 հանգույց a Lockheed L-1011-500 Rolls Royce RB.211-524Bs- ով և 141 հանգույց Boeing 747-100- ի համար General Electric CF6-45A2s- ով:

Արդեն օդանավակայանի աշտարակի հանձնելը, պահպանելով մոտավորապես 1,2 շարժիչի ճնշման գործակիցը ընթերցումը և գործիքային վայրէջքի համակարգը գրավելը, օդանավը երկարացնում է իր տարածքը և ճարմանդային աճող առաջատար և գծապատկերային սարքերը ՝ ենթադրելով խորտակիչի անընդհատ տեմպը, գուցե 100- 50 ֆտ / րոպե: Spoilers- ը զինված է երկարաձգելու հիմնական անիվի սեղմման վրա, և արգելակները կարող են սահմանվել օպտիմալ դադարեցման հեռավորության վրա ՝ ըստ թռիչքուղու երկարության, հպման արագության և մակերևութային պայմանների, ինչպիսիք են ջուրը կամ սառույցը:

Անցնելով արտաքին գծանշանի վրա, այն տրվում է իր «մաքրվել է վայրէջք կատարել» ցուցումներով:

Պահպանելով 1,14 շարժիչի ճնշման գործակիցը և ունենալով դրա բարձրությունը, խորությունը, արագությունը, իջեցման արագությունը, ուժային պարամետրերը և անձնակազմի կողմից սերտորեն դիտարկվող անձնակազմի վրա հսկողության տակ պահելու ժամանակը, այն անցնում է շեմը, դրա բարձրությունը կամ կանչվում է ոչ թռչող օդաչուի կողմից կամ ինքնաբերաբար հայտարարվում է:

«50 ոտք … 40 … 30»:

Օղակը քիթը բարձրացնելով և պրոֆիլավորելով անիվի հիմնական կապի համար ՝ վերջին մի քանի ոտքերը խորտակում է:

«20 ոտք … 10 … հետամնաց (autothrottles- ը մոտ է»):

Վերին թևի մակերևույթի սպոյիլային վահանակները թեքվում են այնքանով, որքան 60 աստիճանով ՝ խոչընդոտելով օդի հոսքի վերելակի առաջացման ունակությունը և ինքնաթիռի ծանրությունը փոխանցելով անիվներին: Հակադարձ շնչափողը, սովորաբար ճարմանդային դռների միջոցով, ակտիվանում է, երբ արտանետումը կողային է, այնուհետև `նախօրոք վեկտորավորված, նվազեցնելով դանդաղեցման հոսքը և նվազագույնի հասցնելով արգելակի օգտագործումը, ինչը առաջացնում է զգալի ջերմություն: ղեկը ձեռք է բերվում պարանոցի միջոցով ՝ պորտալարի ոտնակներով:

Առաջ լծի ճնշումը հնարավորություն է տալիս քթի անիվին կապ հաստատել թռիչքուղու հետ, որի ղեկը ինքնին փոխանցվում է իր հողագործին մոտ տաս հանգույցով:

Գետնին կապվելով ՝ նա տաքսիի ցուցումներով ստանում է իր դարպասը կամ կայանատեղի, որտեղ ուղևորները դուրս են գալիս, ուղեբեռներն ուղարկում են ժամանման ավտոսուս, իսկ բեռները տեսակավորվում են պահեստ:

Նախատեսված է գործել իր հաջորդ հատվածը, որը կարող է տեղի ունենալ 30 րոպեի ընթացքում կամ մի քանի ժամվա ընթացքում, ինքնաթիռները կրկին ենթարկվելու են նույն գործընթացին:



Concorde’s G-BOAE retired to Barbados


It has been three and a half years since its inception, but the G-BOAE, the last concordant to fly over the Atlantic Ocean, has finally opened for public tours at Grantley Adams Airport in Barbados. Everyone is welcome.

The experience of the Barbadian Concorde, as it was called, was designed to provide the barbarians and visitors with an educational and learning experience at the same time, not only about the history of aviation, but also about the role and development of Concorde in shaping history over the past 20 years. Century.

The British Airlines launched its scheduled service to Barbados from London on December 12, 1987. And in late 1988, Concorde flew from New York to Barbados in four weeks, becoming the only destination in the world to receive Concorde services from both sides. Atlantic

For the next 15 years, the airline will operate flights on Saturdays throughout the UK, with celebrities and VIPs living in the UK searching for the winter solstice. Christmas և During the New Year, three or four flights a week were not uncommon, or scheduled services or charters. One day, two British Airways and one Air France Concorde were seen on the ramp at once. The airline later added a weekly service during the peak August holidays. It is also known that some passengers were going to fly to Barbados “for breakfast at Sandy Lane”.

Barbados played a major role in the success of British airline Concorde, significantly increasing the airline’s profits.

The last scheduled supersonic flight from Barbados was in 2003. It was on August 30 that the passengers were sent by the Royal Barbados Police Orchestra through a magnificently guarded honor guard.

Four of the seven supersonic aircraft belonging to British Airways will be stored in Britain, two in the United States and the last in Alpha-Echo, Barbados.

Alpha-Echo is located at the airport with a 28,000-square-foot temporary hanger. Barbados Concorde’s experience includes many media shows, penetration experience, event center, virtual flight school and gift center.



Flight and radiation. What is the risk?


As a flight attendant, I am always aware of being healthy. The new public outcry is the use of body scanners that emit radiation doses. What people don’t really know is the risk to the health of the flight itself. Flying has more of a radiant effect than body scanners ever want. Flying at 30,000 feet for two minutes will give you as much radiation as a body scan. And when you’re on a normal sea voyage with 39,000 feet, the total radiation is much larger than at sea level. Flying in the upper thin part of the atmosphere increases the effect of your radiation and doubles every 6,000 feet in height.

For people who don’t fly that much, I don’t think it’s a nuisance and I remember that you can always get out of the body scanner, which is your right. But it can cover your whole body with mercy, which can be a very unpleasant experience. But for frequent flights and flight attendants who fly commercial airlines at altitudes, we are exposed to high levels of normalcy of human and cosmic rays. And in the case of a solar flare, the radiation is even worse. This poses a real health risk because we are exposed to more radiation than any other occupation.

I wonder why our employers don’t educate us about this risk. European carriers require flight crews to be trained in space radiation. And I wonder why we are not controlled, because health professionals who often perform X-rays and treat cancer. It only takes six or seven trips from New York to Narita Japan to cross the border. It is more than any healthy professional who receives X-rays.

Everyone is exposed to certain radiation every day. The cosmic radiation coming from the sun is a form of ionizing radiation. charged particles that pass through our bodies all the time, which makes us unbalanced. But we are protected by most of them, because the atmosphere of the country absorbs most of all and bends them before they reach them. So the higher you are, the less atmosphere you will have to defend yourself. And too much exposure can lead to tissue and genetic damage caused by cancer and other diseases.

We are all aware that male UV radiation can damage skin cells, which can lead to skin cancer, but at high energy it becomes ionizing radiation, which can cause chemical reactions inside the cells and break the DNA chains that connect. cells and become cancer. If it occurs in semen or an egg, it can lead to birth defects, which is why pregnant women should never undergo X-rays.

There is ample evidence that female flight attendants have higher rates of breast cancer than the rest of the population. It should also be borne in mind that the constantly circulating zones can throw our hormones, our messes with our serotonin and dopamine into our lifestyle, which can also play a big role in causing cancer.

Fortunately, for most flight attendants, we don’t have to go through body scanners because who wants that extra dose of radiation … But our frequent flights aren’t that successful. Although the cars they are talking about are very low and do not look like X-rays at all, experts claim that the cars are not harmful. I believe it’s too early to tell.

But even though we don’t go through body scanners, we are still at greater risk. Robert Barish, who is a physicist and “Invisible Traveler. The author of “Radical Risks for Flying People” says that the staff of the staff radiates more than any other occupation there.

So how much flight is there?

There are two organizations: the US National Council for Radical Protection and Measurement Rad and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. They both endorsed radiation tolerance for the airline and the general public. One week of natural background radiation is 2.4 mSv per year. The group goes on to say that one long international flight will reveal you in a week of natural background radiation. However, airline employees definitely outperform groups that offer limits.

What can we do? The staff of the airlines, of course, cannot stop or stop the flight, first they do it with their work, it is their job, and secondly, the formation of the general public. But the price of payment can be our health. So how can we protect our health?

Since I’m obviously traveling here regularly, that’s what I do to keep my health flying and to keep my health healthy during radiation. Remember that the highest mountain in the world is 28,000 feet, but most of us don’t think about spending 35,000 feet on a height we never planned to be exposed to. And in addition to radiation, in flight, radiation and radioactivity are everywhere, in the air we breathe, the water we drink and the food we eat. Our toxic load is simply increasing.

Cleansing – we can bind radioactive particles and remove them from our bodies. If not, they will stay there and slowly work to destroy your health. We will be exposed to the symptoms of fatigue, the immune system at the end of the week, and all sorts of conditions. Cleaning has been around for centuries. There are a lot of cleansers out there, so be careful when choosing one that I recommend Isagenix 9 Day Cleansing and Fat Burning System. These are all natural cleansers that focus on the whole body, not just one organ. Unlike other cleansers, it washes your body with the nutrients it needs instead of destroying your body, giving your digestive system the break it needs at the same time.

Regular inspections. Regular check-ups can cause premature problems due to the dangers of frequent flights.

To soak baths at home to remove all the accumulation of toxins in our body. This accumulated waste can disrupt our lymphatic system, which relies on physical movement and sweating to get rid of waste. Soaking alkaline in water will help revitalize your body’s internal p and relieve cell inflammation.

Soak salt and soda. The best absorption bath is 2 cups of dead sea salt, shoe salt and 2 cups of baking soda. Fill the bath with water when 2/3 is full, and allow it to dissolve before entering.

Seaweed Bath Inspiration – Seaweed has a strong and powerful ionic charge that removes toxins from the body’s cells. You can buy seaweed soaps at your local health food store, or right here at Health Resort – Bath Salts and Soaps.

Epsom Salt Absorption – This is my favorite because Epsom Salt Magnesium brings stress and tension relief, so it absorbs perfectly after a long flight. Not only that, but magnesium helps to neutralize and eliminate chemical toxins.

Magnesium helps eliminate absorbed radiation and toxins, and large sources of magnesium are dark leafy vegetables. One night I take Isagenix Isa Flush, which is also good magnesium.

Pectin-rich foods – Pectin binds to radioactive and chemical residues and removes them from the body. It acts as a natural clearing agent. Apples, guava, plums, gooseberries, oranges and other citrus fruits. Be sure to wash all fruits. There is truth. “One apple a day removes a doctor,” he said

Fill your body with the nutrients you need to stay healthy. We need food that will build your immune system and help you recover from the damage caused by radiation. We need nutrients that will absorb and absorb pollution from your body. Health experts have prescribed certain supermen and super fruits that fill the body with plant nutrients to protect your health. Phytonutrients enhance your body’s natural detoxification pathways that allow for health and longevity. You may have heard of spirulina (one of the richest sources of vitamins, minerals, iron, protein): chlorella (which is a powerful detoxifier to protect against contaminants, chemicals, pesticides), wheat germ, and dozens of useful herbs including high concentrations of potassium, calcium and magnesium), which, for example, are hypersensitive greens. Mangosteen, Star Fruit and Acai Berry are also powerful food houses, so they are called super fruits. This super food can be your main line of defense against environmental poisoning. There are some great super foods out there, but I suggest boosting your body’s ability to clear toxins և The best food supplement is Isagenix Greens և Isa Fruits. They contain the healthiest green seeds and super fruits on the planet. They are the only ones I have found that have a cold processing technique that is characterized by the drying and concentrating of the natural liquid that retains the citric acid.

Did you know that the US Department of Agriculture recommends 7 to 13 trees a day for fruits and vegetables? In any case, it is quite difficult to do, now we are on a plane, in a hotel and traveling. Isagenix Fruits: Greens come in packs that are great for frequent flyers and flight crews. I couldn’t easily find other brands of this brand.

Fly when the mother is born. Most of the radiation is from the sun, so the earth blocks most of it at night. Aren’t you bleeding at night? The same in the case of sedation. This may cost us a fortune, but it can be more expensive for a frequent flyer.

Astaxanthin is a powerful fat-soluble carotenoid that will protect your cells. Studies show that there is an improvement in the ability of humans to tolerate the effects of the sun. It can be found in fish, seafood and algae. The isagenix greens contain this powerful nutrient. And Life Extension is another company I highly recommend Astaxanthin.

Concurrency / Soil Storage – EMF and other electrical interventions can interfere with your body’s bioelectrical communication, causing weak electrical currents in your body. Wi-Fi only exacerbates the problem. Traveling by plane is a dubious reason to weaken the power supply, as it interferes with the natural ground your body will receive when you connect with the ground naturally through your feet. An earthquake pad, also known as a grounding pad, is great for your seat or jump. They are also ideal for your car.

Drink water, not soda – soda helps to synergistically reduce radiation damage.

Walk around for long flights. This is not a companion for us. But travelers, especially the elderly, need to move around. Being immobile on the plane increases the risk that blood clots will develop and then leave in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). To reduce this risk, avoid alcohol, wear loose clothing and avoid crossing your legs. Of course, we can’t have 230 people flying around, but for some it’s a necessity. It’s better on a plane than a medical emergency.

Eat well and avoid junk food. Unfortunately, many of your options at hotels and airports are useless or processed foods. My advice is to avoid them altogether. This applies to flying food, which is nothing more than processed food. Poor food is loaded with salt and sugar and will damage your immune system. The trick is that fasting is much better than eating junk food. Fasting reduces the body’s immune system. Wrap yourself in healthy snacks, choose organic raw almonds, healthy bars or protein shakes. It’s easy to do on a plane and you will feel much better. Choose carefully and make sure your snacks are organic and low in sugar. Here are some great nutritious snacks that can be easily traveled: Isagenix Slim Cakes, Fiber Snacks, IsaLean Bars, IsaDelights and IsaLean Shakes. The Travel Shaker cup is also easy. You can find this type of cup in any health food store.

Antioxidants. Most of the damage from radiation exposure is oxidative damage, which can lead to cancer and disease. The best way to prevent this is to add antioxidants or “free radicals” to your body. One of the best supplements out there is Ageless Essentials Daily Paks for men or women. I like it because it gives you everything you need, and it’s easy to pack.

In today’s world, it is almost impossible to avoid any poisoning. So let’s be vigilant about our health, shed our bodies with nutrients, cleanse and detoxify. Let’s give our bodies a chance to fight and help make it a miracle.

Joanne Calvacca is an Associate Professor of Certified Nutrition and Isagenix, located in Montville / Mauritius.

MAINTENANCE. These statements were not evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

This information is not intended to diagnose, treat or prevent any disease.



The McDonnell – Douglas MD-80:



The fuel stretch, which is the main design of the DC-9, was characterized by its program, which resulted in four moderately different, higher-power versions, including the original extended DC-9-30 for the starting line -10 / 14/15, the last DC-9-40 and the final DC-9-50, the latter accommodates 49 passengers rather than the original maximum of twins.

The DC-9, which was based on four principles of roughness, simplicity, reliability and low cost, was the best-selling McDonnell-Douglas commercial aircraft, so much so that it actually landed or landed there. Every seven seconds, the world served more than 570 cities with about 6,050 flights a day, and by 1979, the fleet was carrying more than a billion passengers, with more than 18 million hours, almost 99 percent of the dispatch’s reliability.

Its Pratt և Whitney JT8D engines, the most widely used power plant, numbering more than 12,000 units, not only provided a driving force for all versions of the DC-9, but also operated the Boeing 727 Sud-Aviation SE.210- a. Super Caravelle, Boeing 737 և Dassault-Breguet Mercure 100:

Both the basic design of the DC-9 and its JT8D turbofan have subsequently been offered a more optimal, cost-effective platform on which to build a larger power successor, which was supposed to match the capabilities of the DC-9-30 range, but surpassed is DC-9. Economics of the 50s.

Its stretch, not reaching the limit of its stretch, gave it an even higher capacity, but its obstruction was a sufficient driving force to maintain the acceptable load, range and operating parameters for its operators.

Earlier, the two-stage JT3D, which was powered by a և 707, և DC-8, JT8D, low, sometimes bypassed turbofan, was first introduced in 1961. On April 7, reaching the sky. 707 were first installed on May 1 next year. Receiving FAA certification on February 9, 1963, as 14 14,000, JT8D-1 launched before 727-100 before it was launched by DC-9. -10: was then offered in several consecutive high-end versions, the last of which was the 17,400-pound JT8D-17R.

A new generation version that provided DC-9’s ultimate stretching և designated one of six demonstration power plants designed for the JT8D-109, which included larger, single-phase fans designed for NASA’s Quiet Engine program Larger, one-stage fans that operated between 1972 and 1975. And its two versions have been available for more than 50 hours, which have been modified to DC-9-32. Further development of the ,500 18,500 hp JT8D-209 began in 1974 and first ran two years later, in March 1977, when it was tested on the McDonnell-Douglas Advanced Medium STOL Transport (AMST).

Although it was initially considered a new, supernatural vehicle, the aircraft, which was designed for short- and medium-range sectors, which could increase and decrease higher coefficients to real navigation profiles, failed to take full advantage of such new formations, its benefits. as a result, it cannot justify higher development costs. The existing DC-9, including root and peripheral expansion devices, modified lifting devices, will provide the required performance, economy and range settings.

A few initial repetitions, mostly based on DC-9-50, և all included for higher-capacity numbers և two modified turbophors that included refan-stretching DC-9-50RS: Refan-super stretching DC. -9-50RSS, DC-9-55 և DC-9-60, while DC-9QSF, intended for Japanese operators as a replacement for the NAMC YS-11 pair of turboprop, combined DC-9- The 40-pound aircraft has an 18,000-pound JT8D-209 twin-engine engine and a double-sided number, allowing it to operate on a 114,000-pound plane with 120 passengers on a 4,000-foot runway.

However, cost constraints and design complexity dictated a simpler, simpler option, which included longer rods, growing area numbers և JT8D-209 turbophods, but maintaining the commonality of roosters with all previous DC-9 versions. Skipping both the DC-9-60 and DC-9-70 sequences, the final aircraft, the DC-9-80- or DC-9 Super 80, is scheduled to more accurately reflect the planned inauguration of the service, which began in October. On January 20, 1977, from Swissair, Austrian Airlines և Southern Airways received 27 brand and 13 optional orders, a letter of intent from LAV Lineas Aeropostal Venezolanas, all of which were former DC-9 operators. Intended to complement its DC-9 airport with its higher power, replacing triple aircraft with higher costs, it intended to provide services in mature markets whose environmental and noise limitations prevented the replacement of more powerful equipment, the aircraft which offers significantly more low noise footprint, larger range և power և the lowest cost for any comparable twin seat.

According to the then president of “Douglas” airline John von S. According to Brizendin, “in recent years … we have become increasingly aware of the need to save energy, protect the environment and produce more and more economically efficient aircraft. (DC-9 Super 80) is specifically designed to meet the needs of our industry in the years to come. These include environmental compatibility, energy efficiency, economic efficiency and a spacious, comfortable interior. ”

McDonnell-Douglas boasted of the plane. “The DC-9 Super 80 is a proven design mix with low-risk technology available for enhanced efficiency, (but) retains remarkable DC-9 reliability and low operating costs.”

Although it was based on this twin of the earlier generation, it still introduced some of the leading features.

The stretch of the arm, which is achieved by means of eight frame chambers with one corner insert, can lead to a total length of 147.10 feet, bringing the maximum power to 172 or 33 more than the DC-9. 5050 82 Amazing 82 more than the original DC-9-10 և produces the most massive commercial aircraft ever. The front, left, and odorless outlets, both equipped with extended air conditioners, were maintained, but a capable, left-hand service door was installed that was only a foot away from the engine. Italy’s Neapolitan Aeritalia has produced its own box panels.

The new, 10.6-foot-long central section and the peripheral lengths of the two-sided parallel chains, resulting in the third moderately differentiated DC-9, brought in 28 percent space, 57 percent fuel efficiency and 11 percent efficiency.

The 107-foot-tall, 10-by-4-inch, balloon-shaped, quarter-length accord with a 24-degree incline, a 9.62-degree ratio, a three-degree constellation of 1,239 square feet, consisted of one in four. The precision-designed leather panels were redesigned by the Reynolds Metal Company in Illinois, McQueen, 60 inches wide, 15 inches long and 30 inches thick with 14,000 pounds of plaster.

The whole metal, bisexual structure, with dashed lines, is depicted in full, three-position leading edge tiles, with a new, intermediate setting to reduce weight and increase the weight to the height of the joint. Larger, doubled, folded-lined folding covers that covered 67 percent of the section and reduced the speed of the aircraft’s suspension. three spoiler panels, two of which were available for both flight and surface lifts. իլ Ailerones. The latter became hydraulically active, while the planes were operated by hand. The fenced-in fence provided adequate airflow. Providing an additional $ 1,520 of fuel storage, it also offered a vehicle under the extended area.

A variable case, an electrically used horizontal tail, 40.2 feet long or 3.6 feet longer than the DC-9-50, retained the design-specific t-tail design and lifts with sports assistant inserts, while the vertical number 30. The description of the common plane in 2 feet showed a hydraulic starter rope. It was 1.4 feet taller than the DC-9-50.

Its Pratt և Whitney JT8D-209 turbofan, mounted on both sides of the base roof and retaining the original type of target type transformers, was previously based on the JT8D-9 core, but introduced a 49-inch low-pressure, wider, advanced air conditioner. , which produces 18,500 pounds, as well as an additional 750 pounds of automatic power reserve (APR), which is created in the event of engine loss. A larger-diameter, single-phase air conditioner, driven by a larger mass of air passing through the hot core, combines more efficient hot and cold air with the outlet duct. . 1: A higher bypass ratio of 1.78, unlike the earlier JT8D 1. 1; lower output speed; 11% drop in fuel consumption; ք Significantly lower noise level than mid-range tripods intended to replace.

Using the weight-bearing Kevlar-reinforced aluminum beeswax, the outer barrel of its nose clasps և its top և in the outer barrel of the two lower cotton doors, loaded with a graphite tape cover, had a length of 9 T 21 ն J1. The 4.5-meter-long և was subsequently presented with engineering challenges related to the DC-9 or its installation on a longer body.

The DC-9 Super 80 retained hydraulically retractable, three-way, two-way, Cleveland Pneumatic underwear, which was fitted with Goodyear wheels, tires and disc brakes; Hydro-Aire Mk IIIA anti-theft units; ուգ Douglas froze the air brakes. The nose wheel on both sides rested on 27 degrees.

Although the Super 80 maintained its overall pilot-type rating with the DC-9, it still offered a number of cabin upgrades, including a digital flight management system developed by the Sperry Rand Corporation’s Sperry Flight Systems Division, which was integrated. in the seven flight performance to control the subsystems of two identical digital computers. Cathode ray tube (CRT) screening; fuel quantity measuring digital system; dial-a-flap system. և IIIA Category Automotive Capacity 50 Drives Decision Height (DH) 700 Flight Visual Range 700 feet (RVR). The later-introduced electronic control system provided an automatic tray and booster for optimal speed and fuel combustion during take-off, take-off and landing profiles.

The 101-foot-long, “wide-looking” cabin featured a wide, surrounded and sculpted acoustically treated ceiling mixed with above-ground storage walls. aluminum sidewalks carved around the windows; fluorescent lighting; 19-inch corridor; և Five-scale, two-three or three-two, structured economy class seats that cut half of the middle seats, which are traditionally associated with six-scale arrangements.

The interior decor, which varied from conservative, business-based design to bold patterns and bright colors, was decided by the operator and customs cleared by McDonnell-Douglas, whose interior design teams often made trips to airline countries in the local culture. customs, then turn that experience into a reflection of space or the reflection of the earth. The synthetic blends of wool and wool were commonly used for seat covers and rugs.

The layout of the class and the seats was equally different according to the operator. For example, 137 passengers, a two-tier arrangement that includes 12 first-class seats with a 38-inch pitch and 125-inch corner seats in a 125-seat economy class, and 155 passengers were included in a single-class density. With a 32/33 inch angle, 167 charter seats with a 30 inch angle or a maximum of 172 high-density passengers, the latter fit in a single coil installation.

The internal noise reduction was done by means of a Mylar insulating blanket reinforced with fabric foil.

The extended DC-9 introduced a new pressure and air circulation system that replaced the cottage air with a higher frequency, and its drinking water system included electric heaters in all of its water lines. The Advanced Power Support Unit (APU) put its environmental management system on the ground.

Prolonged flight of the aircraft can significantly increase the volume of its lower deck of luggage and cargo compartment, before which the center and bases, respectively, include 434, 376 and 443 cubic feet.

DC-9-80 retained 80% of the basic storage properties of DC-9-50.

The aircraft was designed for short-range, low-speed airports, fast-turning, self-sufficient operations, with increased surveillance, larger areas, unique ventilation, ambient ventilation and engine auxiliary power, low ground profile to facilitate maintenance, loading and maintenance. to facilitate the ability to operate two or more sections without the need to refuel. Most revolutions required a little more than a trunk.

At a maximum structural load of, 40,122, the DC-9-81, as originally intended, weighed a total of 7 147,000, although it was later increased to 9 149,500, with a maximum landing weight of 8 128,000. Its normal և maximum navigation speeds, respectively, Mach were 0.76 և 0.80. The mountain range, with 155 single-class passengers and domestic reserves, was 1,564 nautical miles.

He trained Douglas Chief Engineer HH “Knick” Knickerbocker, Program Pilot John von P. Large-scale test engineer Virginia A. Klerin of Virginia, the first DC-9 Super 80 և 909 twin aircraft to fly out of Long Beach, made its maiden flight on October 18, 1979 in Long Beach. 30 from the airport runway with a call sign for DACO 80 for Douglas Aircraft Company 80.

The 25-mile-long, long-sleeved drone, which fits 13,100 pounds of test equipment, completed a 50-minute test of two 50-minute basic exercises before landing at the McDonnell-Douglas Flight Plant. Yuma, Arizona, where the chief engineer ended up. “Super 80’s overload is even better than other DC-9s. It also seemed to be quite stable in flight … The new engines were flawless, and the reverse was the case. It’s very efficient when landing … I believe that the Super 80 is a great plane and will meet all our expectations. ”

The $ 1,085-hour, $ 36 million three-stage flight test program, which includes the first flights of the original N1002G prototype on December 6, 1979, and the N1002W on February 29, 1980, led to the FAA certification seven months later, on August 26. with a change. to the original DC-9 type certificate.

On September 12, it was first delivered to the Swissair customer, which previously operated the DC-9-15, -30 և -50 series, which was launched on October 5 from Zur Unique to the Frankfurt schedule, becoming the most peaceful commercial clean aircraft. The Austrian airline’s co-rapporteur, who used the DC-9-30-50 bag equally, opened its first revenue service 21 days later, on October 26, from Vienna to Zur.

To adopt the McDonnell-Douglas design scheme, the DC-9-80 or DC-9 Super 80 was republished in 1983 as the MD-80, the original version of which was called the MD-81.


Development of the Pratt և Whitney JT8D-209 engine base, which resulted in a huge, ,000 20,000 21 217 additional version, the origin of which was the 1979 requirement for short-term unloading and landing (STOL) aircraft. the aponia in the domestic market. The then-expected iteration of the DC-9 Super 80SF would combine the DC-9-40 wagon with DC-9-80 engines, but the high-quality JT8D-217 used was available in the size of the terrace, provided most of the desired performance. Finally, a second version designated MD-82 և was first announced in 1979. On April 16, it contained 155 passengers and 205 passengers with a rated 20,000-pound turbofan with an automatic power reserve of 50 8,024 and a load of .0 2,050. Flying for the first time in 1981 Հունվարի 8-ին, այն ստացավ իր FAA տիպի սերտիֆիկացումը վեց ամիս անց ՝ հուլիսի 31-ին, նախնական քաշի 147,000 ֆունտ առավելագույն չափով, չնայած որ JT8D-217A շարժիչների 1982-ի տարբերակն էլ ավելի բարձրացրեց սա մինչև 149.500 ֆունտ, ինչի արդյունքում դեռևս ավելի բարձր բեռի և տիրույթի հնարավորությունների դեպքում:

«Հանրապետական ​​ավիաուղիներ» -ը, Հյուսիսային Կենտրոնական և Հարավային ավիաուղիներ Հյուսիսային Կենտրոնական և Հարավային ավիաուղիներների 1978 թ.-ի հուլիսի 1-ի միաձուլումը, հանդիսանում էր վարկածի գործարկման հաճախորդը ՝ լինելով աշխարհի ամենամեծ DC-9 օպերատորը `10-ականների, -30-ականների և -50-ականների շարքերով, որին իր ութ MD- 82-ականները ի վերջո ավելացվեցին:

Տարբերակն ընդգրկված էր երկու եզակի ծրագրերում: Դրանցից առաջինը, որը տեղի է ունեցել 1982-ի հոկտեմբերին, ենթադրում է 20 MD-82- ի նորարարական վարձակալությունը American Airlines- ին, որի համար Մակդոնել-Դուգլասը համաձայնեց կրել պահպանման և վերապատրաստման ծախսերը: Սա թույլ տվեց 1984 թ. Փետրվարին 67 ինքնաթիռ գնել, գրավիչ գներով և չեղյալ հայտարարված ցածր տույժերով, առաքվել տասից մինչև 25 ավիաընկերության բլոկներով, որոնց յուրաքանչյուր բլոկը հաստատելի էր եղել առաքման նպատակային ամսաթվից 24 ամիս առաջ: Դառնալով Ամերիկայի կարճ և միջին հեռահարության նավատորմի ՝ Չիկագոյում և Դալլասում հանգույցային կապերը հեշտացնելու համար, օդանավը, որը կազմաձևվել է 142 առաջին և տնտեսության դասի ուղևորների համար, ի վերջո համարակալվել է 234-ով ՝ աշխարհի ամենամեծ, մեկ տիպի ընդհանուր թվով նախկին ԽՍՀՄ-ից դուրս: .

Երկրորդ նորարարական գործարքը տեղի է ունեցել 1985 թ.-ի ապրիլի 12-ին, երբ Շանհայի ավիացիոն արդյունաբերական կորպորացիան համաձայնվեց լիցենզիա կառուցել 25 MD-82- ներ Չինաստանի Ժողովրդական Հանրապետությունում:

Երկար հեռահարության իրավահաջորդ, որը նշանակվել է MD-83 և առաջին անգամ հայտարարվել է 1982 թ.-ի հունվարի 31-ին, ներկայացրեց դեռևս ավելի բարձր մակարդակի շարժիչներ: 21,000 ֆունտ մղիչ ուժգնությամբ գնահատված JT8D-219- ում ներկայացված էին վերափոխված ցածր ճնշման տուրբին, նոր բարձր ճնշման տուրբին, աերոդինամիկ բարելավված ավիաբալոններ, մղիչի հնգամյա բարձրացում և վառելիքի այրման երկու տոկոսանոց կրճատում:

Առաջին թռիչքը 1984 թ.-ի դեկտեմբերի 17-ին, երկվորյակ ինքնաթիռը, որի առավելագույն քաշը 160,000 ֆունտ է, առաջարկեց 2,502 ծովային մղոն հեռահարություն, որը ձեռք է բերվել 1,160 ԱՄՆ-ի գալոն լրացուցիչ, ավելի ցածր տախտակամածով պահվող լրացուցիչ վառելիքի պահեստարաններով: Finair- ը, որը գործել էր DC-9-14 / 15, -40 և -50, ծառայում էր որպես վարկածի տարբերակի գործարկման հաճախորդ, որը գործարկում էր ամենաերկար, առանց կանգառի MD-80 չվերթը 1985 թվականի նոյեմբերի 14-ին, երբ այն ծածկում էր 3,406 մղոնը հեռավորությունը Մոնրեալի և Հելսինկիի միջև յոթ ժամվա ընթացքում, 26 րոպե: Transwede- ն ՝ Շվեդիայի, բացեց իր առաջին եկամուտները վաստակող տրանսատլանտյան թռիչքը Ստոկհոլմից մինչև Ֆտ: Lauderdale- ը միջանկյալ կանգառներով Օսլոյում և Գանդերում:

Որպեսզի ավելի ցածր հզորության գործընկերոջը ավելի հարմար լինի իջեցված պահանջարկի ոլորտներին և առավել արդյունավետորեն մրցակցելու այս շուկայի համար նախատեսված 737-300 Boeing- ի հետ, Մակդոնել-Դուգլասը առաջարկել է առաջին, և միակ, չափորոշիչորեն տարբերվող տարբերակն առաջինը ՝ ԲԿ: -87, որը սկիզբ է առել իր ավելի վաղ, DC-9 Super XX- ի ուսումնասիրությունները 100-ից 120 ուղևորատար ինքնաթիռների համար, որոնք սնուցվում էին կամ Pratt- ի ​​և Whitney JT8D-200 սերիայի կամ CFM International CFM56-3 տուրբոֆանների միջոցով և առաջարկելով 110,000- 120,000- ֆունտ համախառն քաշը: 16.5 ոտնաչափով կարճ ծածկոց ունեցող տարբերակն ուներ նոր, 130.5 ոտնաչափ ընդհանուր երկարություն և ուներ 38,726 ֆունտ առավելագույն բեռ, կամ նույնն էր, ինչ DC-9-50- ը:

Ավելի կարճ բեռի պահվածքի պահի անկման պատճառով, ուղղահայաց առանցքի հսկումը պահանջում էր ավելի մեծ տարածք, տասը դյույմ ավելի բարձր ծայր, որը երևում է իր ավանդական T- պոչի զուգավորման կետի վերևում գտնվող երկարաձգմամբ և արդյունքում `նոր, 31.2 ոտնաչափ ընդհանուր բարձրություն . Այն նաև ներմուծեց ցածր քաշքշուկով ծալքավոր անցքեր և հատվածներ, ֆիլե ֆրինգ ՝ սպեղանի և շարժիչի պիլոնի միջև, ինչպես նաև կրճատված ձգվող, բերանաձև պոչամբարի միջև:

Սկզբնապես գործարկվել է 20,000 հարվածի ֆունտ JT8D-217B- ով, բայց հետագայում այն ​​վերափոխվելով վառելիքի ավելի ցածր սպառման -217C վարկածով, MD-87- ն ուներ 2,372 ծովային մղոնի միջակայք `130 ուղևորով և ներքին պաշարներով, չնայած լրացուցիչ ՝ MD-83 տիպի վառելիք Ստորին հոլդերում տանկերը ավելացրել են դա մինչև 2,833 մղոն:

Առաջին անգամ երկինք նետվելով 1986 թ.-ի դեկտեմբերի 4-ին, այն ստացավ իր FAA տիպի վկայականը հաջորդ տարվա հոկտեմբերի 21-ին, իսկ աշխատանքի մեկնարկը տրվեց դեկտեմբերի 17-ին Ավստրիական ավիաուղիների հետ Վիեննայից Զագրեբ:

Հինգ վարկածներից վերջին և ամենաառաջադեմը ՝ MD-88- ը, վերաարտադրեց վագանի բուն չափերը և հայտարարվեց 1986 թ. Հունվարի 23-ին ՝ Delta Air Lines- ի հաճախորդի գործարկման արդյունքում, հաճախորդի գործարկման արդյունքում սկզբնական պատվերը տեղադրեց տիպի 80: Առաջարկվել է 21,000 խցանման ֆունտ JT8D-219 տուրբոֆոններ, տարբերակը, որն առավելագույնս հիմնված է MD-82- ի վրա, ներկայացնում էր կառուցվածքային քաշը նվազեցնելու համար ավելացված կոմպոզիտային նյութեր, նոր ուղևորային տնակ `ավելի լայն միջանցքով և նորացված վերգետնյա պահեստներով և առաջատար, ապակե տաղավար, վերջինս բաղկացած էր էլեկտրոնային թռիչքային գործիքների համակարգից (EFIS), թռիչքների կառավարման համակարգից (FMS) և իներցիալ հղման համակարգից (IRS): Այն պահպանեց MD-87- ի բերանաձև պոչը:

Առաջին թռիչքը 1987-ի օգոստոսի 15-ին և FAA- ի կողմից վավերացված չորս ամիս անց ՝ դեկտեմբերի 9-ին, MD-88- ը մտավ նախատեսված ծառայություն Դելտայի հետ հունվարի 5-ին, կամ ավելի քան 22 տարի անց, երբ այն գործեց աշխարհի առաջին ուղևորափոխադրող ծառայությունը `- 14 սերիա 1965-ի դեկտեմբերի 8-ին: Գործում էին նաև ձգվող DC-9-30 և MD-82- ն:


1.000-րդ MD-80- ը առաքվել էր 1992-ի մարտի 29-ին, իսկ 1997-ի դեկտեմբերին, այդ տեսակի 1150-ը սպասարկվում էր աշխարհի 60 ավիաընկերությունների հետ: Դիզայնը, որը մասնակիորեն հաջողվել է իր առաջադեմ, նորից ներկառուցված MD-90 գործընկերոջ և Boeing- ի սեփական Next Generation 737 ընտանիքի կողմից, այդ արտադրողի կողմից McDonnell-Douglas- ի ձեռքբերումից հետո, այնուամենայնիվ, դարձավ նրա ամենալավ վաճառվող մաքուր ինքնաթիռի առևտրային ինքնաթիռը ՝ գերազանցելով DC- ի վաճառքը: 8, Super DC-8, DC-9 ինքնին, DC-10, MD-11, MD-90 և MD-95/717, որոնց վերջին առաքումը տեղի էր ունեցել 1999 թվականի դեկտեմբերի 21-ին, երբ MD-83- ը հանձնվեց TWA- ին ՝ ավարտելով արտադրության երկու տասնամյակը: Բնօրինակի կարճ և կարճ տևողությամբ DC-9- ի 976 վաճառքի հետ միասին այն դարձավ Boeing’s 737- ի և Airbus Industrie- ի A-320 ընտանիքից հետո վաճառվող երրորդ ամենավաճառված երկվորյակ-ինքնաթիռը, որի ընթացքում կառուցվել են կոլեկտիվ 2,167 ինքնաթիռներ:



Ride a friendly sky with a Boeing 747 flight simulator


Plane flight simulator games are a big hit right now, and you can simulate flights to a whole new level by trying the Boeing 747 Flight Simulator. You will have several Boeing aircraft to choose from, including the Boeing 707, the 737, the Boeing 747 and the 777. The Jumbo Jet, nicknamed Boeing 747, is the most popular aircraft in the world.

The Boeing 747 was the first large-scale aircraft to be built, two and a half times larger than the 707. The 747 has long held the record for passenger power, as it uses a double deck for some of its length. It has a cruising speed of Mach 0.85, which is about 570 miles per hour. When you’re preparing to unload a plane using a Boeing 747 flight simulator, you’ll be amazed at how realistic it is.

With the 747 you will notice many features, including the precise appearance of the instrument panel and the cockpit. Another way to emphasize realism is to adjust the simulator of the Boeing 747 flight, in contrast to the simulation of small planes. There is a big difference between moving and landing control, but you will even notice it when you are in the air.

If you were to fly a fighter jet or a small plane, the response time with the controllers would be instantaneous. However, when you fly the Jumbo Jet, the response time is very slow, so you need to think ahead and predict turns and height changes. In fact, it works from the yoke, so you’ll want to spend a little more to buy this peripheral to make the Boeing 747 flight simulator more realistic. That way you can feel the delayed reaction time from the runway or the air.

747 Another difference between Jumbo Jet’s Air Bus, Europe’s commercial aircraft, is that Air Bus uses flying wire technology, in which the pilot enters information and the computer makes the final decision. The pilot of the Boeing 747 flight simulator has the final conclusion by managing the aircraft. The good thing is that you can practically sink and just walk away.

There are many options for flight simulation programs. Time of day or year: weather is just some of the choices you can make. More than that, however, it is possible to fly anywhere in the world with accurate views, directly to the city lights and sights.

You can choose to fly with cargo or passengers or empty. You can leave Paris and land in New York, fly over the Eiffel Tower, and then the Statue of Liberty. Look at the world cheaply from the bird’s eye with the cube of a Boeing 747 Flight Simulator.

So, if you are looking for an interesting airplane game that you can enjoy in your own home, you need to do some research to get the right software that can give you a unique experience when it comes to really flying. This will ensure that you get the value of your money along with the hours of fun and adventure.



Car rental at Ben Gurion Airport – What you need to know about rental companies and policies


Israel is a country worth always visiting. Whether you want to travel in Jerusalem or just need a vehicle to get around Tel Aviv, you should look for a car rental at Ben Gurion Airport. It is located near the center of the country and serves as the main gate. The car rental facility at the airport is open 24/7.

Most rental agencies will not allow you to reserve a specific model or perform. However, they will try to accommodate you based on your needs. Tell them what you’re interested in. It is always best to book online so that you can have an ideal car when you leave your terminal. If you do not have the appropriate currency, there are many ATMs located at the airport.

Most flights arrive and depart from Terminal 3, which is the main terminal. There are several charging and budget flights that fly from Terminal 1. It is only during these budget flights that passengers need to be transferred from the plane to the terminal.

Where to buy car rental at Ben Gurion Airport. Just take the escalators and find offices for the country’s top five rental vehicles: Eldan, Avis, Hertz, Sixt and Budget. It is always a good idea to look for a car with a reliable GPS system when visiting another country. Also, be sure to remove the map from the car rental table.

If you don’t need to take buses to the office on your own, you need to drive one car to choose your car. The garage next to the main terminal is just a short distance away.

Insure your car rental at Ben Gurion Airport

If you are not a native of Israel, your insurance policy cannot cover car rental, so check in advance what is and what is not included in your current policy. Also, if you are traveling with children, learn about the laws in Israel regarding child car seats.

To rent a car in Israel, you must be at least 21 or 24 years old, depending on the company. Most likely, you will be charged an airport tax for renting your car at Ben Gurion Airport. Carefully read the terms and conditions of any rental company you enter, especially if you are unfamiliar with Israeli driving laws. The good news is that the country has signatures in English and Hebrew, as well as a well-maintained road network.

You can save on car rental at Ben Gurion Airport by using online discount codes. Make sure a certain password or coupon is valid before you complete your booking. You can also find deals on airfare and hotel rooms by looking at online travel deals.



Inwood Hill Park Study – Old Growth Forest in New York


In addition to being the only natural (non-green) park on Manhattan Island, Inwood Hill Park trees have not been cut down since the late 1700s, when US forces built Fort Cox.

Popular folklore says that Peter Minut made his legendary purchase from the inhabitants of Lenape, who lived here in 1624 on the island of Manhattan. lnwood Hill officially became a New York City park in 1916, saving more than just native trees.

The Trail Network explores this historic park, as well as the nature adventure. The caves, which were once inhabited by the natives of Lenape, are a great way to overcome the summer heat. At dawn or dusk, the salt marsh is ideal for bird watching – rappers, fountains and migratory species can be easily seen in this urban sanctuary. There is also a nature center with interactive exhibits and a recently built Algonkin-style shelter.

Watching a colorless bald eagle branching off three or four minutes before spreading its wingspan is a great way to spend a summer afternoon in New York City. It was one of my favorite campaigns.

There hasn’t been a good season for berries, but I eat more wild foods for every salad: lamb quarters, Asian day flower, wood pickle, caterpillar, wild garlic, mustard seed than processed vegetables.

I go out into the woods to enjoy a few other offers from Manhattan, but having Inwood Hill Park as my temporary backyard convinces me that New York has managed to offer the best of both worlds.



UFO. Listen to the pilots, not the real ones


Growing up with a family career air force officer, your dad can be daunting. Many kids have to deal with moving out of the base apartment and a hundred other things that will drive you crazy. I was lucky to be born late in my parent’s life. I once came to my father’s stable and was about to retire. We lived in Long Island, and I did not face the challenges that other “servicemen” had to face. However, there was an elephant in the room that I couldn’t ignore …

After my father retired from the Air Force, his standing up and personality immediately pushed him to another job. As vice president of construction equipment, who sold and rented everything from forks to towering towers, he was busy with his company contracting to supply the equipment needed to build the New York World’s Fair and the World Trade Center in the early 1960s. buildings, a little later. Because he had two important jobs in his life, it was not uncommon for my parents to have dinner at the New York Athletic Club with Kennedy’s brothers or Rockefeller’s heirs. The result was that Flying Sauces was full of news in the 1950s and 1960s, so my father was constantly confronted with questions about them, sometimes from high-powered friends.

As a kid, I used to love Flying Saucers. Every time I asked my father about them, he would just say that the government said they were mostly unrecognized planes, and there was nothing to worry about. It was his standard answer for anyone interested in the issue. I would respond well to that answer, but there was a problem with that. He was sincere when he announced the government’s position. This does not mean that he did not agree with it. We have had a steady stream of former and even active air force pilots coming home for BBQ or just hanging out with my dad. They did not support the position of the official government on an unknown flying object (a deadline set by the US government).

As a single child, I spent a lot of time with adults as well as with children. I quickly learned to be silent and listen. It was canceled when the pilots came to our house and took out the UFOs. Each pilot had the most UFO history. If they decided to share it, the others in the details were barbecued. These were not accidental conversations. The pilots are very technical when it comes to proving or disproving the controversial issue during the flight. It was easy to see that the pilots I heard believed in government pundits that had an explanation for each sighting. They were convinced that this was not something the Russians had built and built.

Chuck Jaeger, a military pilot who first broke the sound barrier in 1947, describes what I encountered as a father of my father and friends of his pilots. Jaeger was asked if he had ever seen a UFO on Twitter. He said. “No, I don’t drink before I fly.” Please be different, and I think that statement was an insult to the trusted pilots who decided to post their views and meetings. Twitter’s response is clearly his public statement. However, I remember very clearly that he said very different things in the 1960s.

When I was little, my father was invited to a barbecue base at Rabit Patterson Air Force Base. I went with him. The speaker of the day was Yeager. After a brief conversation about his many adventures in the air, he once again said that he immediately attracted the attention of all present. Several pilots asked Chuki what he thought of flying sailors. Then he gave many pilots and air force personnel a rare opportunity to hear a story he would never share with the general public …

Jaeger said that during the flight tests of the Bell aircraft, which he eventually used to break the sound barrier, a procedure was carried out. The cockpit filmed every flight. After that, he and the Debriefing panel, which consisted of Air Force officers, General Electric civil engineers who built the engines for Bell, and the medical doctor, all watched the footage. Then they will discuss the flight. On one occasion he said that a large, compactly shaped object appeared on the steering wheel to the right to rotate the side of his plane. Then it moved almost immediately in front of his plane.

Bell was like a flying ball. It was not very small at that speed! If this subject was slowed down or stopped, Jaeger knew he would end up on the windshield. While the thought was running through his head, the subject suddenly disappeared. Later, when he went into debriefing, the norms were very different. No projector, no screen, no air force officers, no civil engineers, no doctor. It was just Jagger and a couple of other guys who tried to say that the subject was a new, secret plane being tested by the armed forces.

Jagger knew all the other experimental pilots and was convinced that he would hear everything as developed as the object he saw. Then, the man warned her not to talk about the meeting. I have a wonderful memory and I remember him telling that story as it happened yesterday. And there is that scratch … In the public statement, the experts of the state structure called these objects swamp gas, they mistakenly found famous planes and hallucinations. Publicly, the pilots and other members of the armed forces agree with them, or simply have not made a statement on the matter. In particular, it was obviously a different story.

My father danced around this conflict of two truths until he finally told me that some things are classified for a good reason. Adults, he explained, sometimes have to lie to keep people safe. “Safe.” I thought. That? In any case, he said that lying was a bad habit and suggested that I stay away from it. I followed his advice. My classmates were interested in Flying Saucers because of all the titles about them in the 1960s. I decided to choose this topic for the report I had to do. We all took turns reading our reports. I included Jagger’s story in me. Upon completion, you can hear a pin drop in the room.

My teacher liked the report, but inquired about the story of the teenagers. He called my father. At the end of the day he was at school with two guys in lawsuits. My report disappeared, the teacher never asked me about it again, and my classmates only talked to me about lunch or lunch cups. I told the truth, but it was not the truth accepted by the government. The good news is that none of my non-existent reports have gotten me a 100 percent grade yet. I think it’s really paying to tell the truth.



A Brief History of Aircraft


Aviation has been the most powerful mode of transport in modern times. It plays an important role in the economy. It creates jobs, allows businesses to spread to other countries, and helps develop other industries, such as the tourism industry. In addition, aviation brings people from all over the world, and establishes stronger ties between cultures and countries.

It is such a useful invention for the whole world. But as unbelievable as it may seem, about two centuries ago, people thought it was impossible for humanity to reach airplanes. The Wright brothers proved them wrong.

On December 17, 1903, Wilbur and Orville Wright did the impossible. Covering for 85 seconds and 59 seconds, Wright Brothers made the first successful flight in human history. This progress has attracted the attention of governments and automotive enthusiasts around the world.

Over the next decade, aviation technology continued to grow rapidly. During this time, engineers replaced the old engines with better ones. The pilots sought to reach higher altitudes, beating the best records in aviation, as they reached higher speeds, higher altitudes and longer flights. For them, the sky is the limit.

Planes in World War II

When World War I broke out, airplanes became widely known as military equipment. This led to an increase in demand for aircraft. However, the most advanced aircraft development took place during this period, when engines were upgraded. The planes could then fly at 130 miles per hour, doubling the speed of pre-war aircraft.

In 1914, the aircraft was first tested in combat. In the minds of many, aviation planes mean bombs, air battles and surveillance. Moreover, when the war ended, the surplus of aircraft was so huge that construction companies closed, and the demand for these aircraft dropped to zero.

The planes were later used in military operations. In fact, they became the main tools of World War II, which gave birth to the term “fighter jets”. In 1937, the Germans were able to produce and test the first aircraft in history. Because it did not do as the Germans initially thought it was, it took them another five years to complete the plane, which was too late to change the outcome of World War II.

Birth of commercial airlines

It was 1976 when the airline was introduced in France and the United Kingdom. The first commercial aircraft was carrying more than a hundred passengers at almost twice the speed of sound. This led to a 3.5-hour flight from London to New York, which is significantly shorter. However, the cost was so high that at that time the flights were only for the rich and the privileged.

1996-1998 Russian-American aerospace companies have partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop a second-generation supersonic aircraft.

Today, airline flights are already available, and they can be used for leisure or corporate travel. Planes are everywhere, and people now accept them as accepted. However, it should be remembered that this wonderful invention was brought not so long ago by the courage of the ancestors to resist the traditional beliefs of the people at that time.



American trans air story


The American Trans Air Airport, which used to be an air carrier, was constantly looking for an identity.

Founded in 1973 as a flight attendant for the Embassy Travel Club, it opened its service under the single name “Boeing 720” called “Miss Indy”, doubling its fleet five years later and the second ” The spirit of India. ” However, the issuance of a general carrier certification in March 1981 made it possible to operate independently.

Preserving the roots of its Indianapolis, it acquired more and more aircraft, including eight 707s; Its first broadband, the former Laker Airways DC-10-10, was recorded in 1983 by N183AT. և Former North-West DC-10-40, which bears the registration N184AT. With the Quad engine, the 707 was eventually replaced by a more efficient 727-100 fuel tank.

The general tickets of the annual passengers have passed. In 1981 – 96426, in 1982 – 269,086, in 1983 – 618,532.

Relying on North-West for additional DC-10 achievements, but having to replace the comparable TriStar when he chose to save his plane, American Trans Air bought its first in 1985, eventually operating at 15 L. 1011-1s, one -100: four. 500s.

It took on a new operational profile when it launched limited scheduled service on JFK-Belfast-Riga (Latvia), Indianapolis-Fort Meiser, Indianapolis-Las Vegas and San Francisco-Caulu (Mauway) as America-Honolulu routes on its own routes. “Airline” and “the largest charter airline of the nation”.

“It simply came to our notice then. You create excitement, ”the ad reads. “At Trans Air, we know that your only concern during the holidays is your excitement. That’s why you can count on American Trans Air’s polite, professional staff, flying airplanes, conscious consumer prices and all the little additions that have become the hallmark of our growing company. ”

It was growing. Striving to avoid the airline’s planned competition, it became the largest statutory operator in the United States, accounting for up to 90 percent of its revenue from civilian and military units in the sector, the rest from wet operations, wet leasing, and third-party pilots. courses and contract maintenance.

With the operation of the 23rd Fleet in 1992, including seven 727-100s, 12 L-1011-1s and four 757-200s, it was beneficial for its 19-year history, causing experimental damage to the previous one. for $ 2 million a year. for the first time due to the decline of the Gulf War and the horror of travel. It transported 2.4 million passengers that year.

However, it was the Gulf War that served as the cornerstone of its military operations, as its aircraft were considered part of the Civil Air Patrol Fleet. With 108,000 troops on 4,944 missions in support of the Opera Desert Storm, it also played an instrumental role in Iraq’s “freedom” and “freedom” operations, providing 727-100 aircraft at the Nelis Air Force Base in Tonopah Test Range in Niada.

Stretch-200 replaced the 100’s in 1993.

Trans Air has once again adopted a new image when it donated most of its aircraft resources to the weekend in Chicago-Midway, in addition to its military-government contract flights.

To facilitate the planned growth and modernization of the fleet, in 2000 he ordered 39 737-800 և 12 757-200s, undertaking the first shipment of the former (N301TZ) in June next year, and the first of the latter (N550TZ). Two months later, he announced a major overhaul of the process, highlighting his business plan, which is now based on ATA Airlines.

Equally in search of food from small and medium-sized cities with more convenient Turboprop regional equipment, Chicago Express, which existed in 1999, bought it for $ 1.9 million and operated it as a separate subsidiary of ATA Connection.

His latest high-quality strategy, however, proved to be fruitless, forcing it to be presented in Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Protection 5 years later, on October 26, 2004. 2004 On October 26, the best way to restore it. The benefit of a healthy carrier, which, in this case, was the destruction of Southwest Airlines.

In December 2004, the gates of its Midway Airport and 27 percent of its unheard-of shares were transferred south-west to south-west for the infusion of money to be injected into life, and continued to operate in December 2004. , now taking over the business airline’s profile, flying to cities in the southwest, including New York-La Guardia, Dallas / Fort Worth and San Francisco. Midway’s bypass services also allowed it to connect southwestern focus cities such as Orlando, Phoenix and Las Vegas with other routes in its route system, such as Denver and Honolulu.

The strategy led to a 20 percent increase in income from the south-west, but did not necessarily put ATA in financial trouble.

To further reduce its value, it significantly reduced its fleet by selling 20,737-800s ութ eight 757-300s և only by marginally connecting its capacity gap through a two-year lease. From November to 2007 November at three former United Airlines 737. -300s. Even the rental rates were too high in that case.

At the same time, it is not surprising that the decline in parallel service was large-scale, as in a short period of time the lights shifted in many directions: in October 2005 Boston, Newark and Minneapolis, October 2005, Indianapolis and Denver, and Orlando, Fort Myser and San Francisco. April, leaving a little more than the skeleton of her sometimes completely decomposed body. Indeed, 18 daily departures were sent to Midway Airport by one gate, and only 52 were offered across the system. A previous court ruling allowed it to sell a portion of its embassy’s travel club to Grueninger Cruises and Tours.

Despite MatlinPatterson’s $ 100 million financial package, the original bankruptcy creditors allowed the now-privatized carrier to go bankrupt for a short time and set up a service in New York-La Guardia, Houston-Hobby, Ontario, Oakland, and the Netherlands. , rising fuel prices, the short-term resignation of the CEO, his poorly-planned replacement of the L-1011s with the DC-10, and the loss of the main military contract caused it to return to bankruptcy, leaving flight 4586 in 2008. Honolulu to Phoenix on August 2, 0846 to mark his last landing.



Recent developments at Lock Island’s McArthur Airport


1. Declining numbers.

Long Island MacArthur Airport, owned by the city of Islip, has been in a vicious cycle since its inception. Airlines have long been reluctant to provide services due to a lack of passengers, and passengers have been reluctant to use the airport because airlines have failed to provide the service they are looking for. Over the past six decades, this phenomenon has almost drowned out non-existence.

Although 1.8 million passengers spend an average of 3.7 million passengers a year in the area of ​​its eastern county of Nassau-Safolk, these favorable facts end here, as only 25 percent of them use MacArthur for their travels. Rising by 50 percent, if only the non-stop service is considered, this statistic emphasizes the interest of the carriers if they provide them.

Indeed, between 2007 and 2012, the number of annual departures fell from 14,784 to 7,930, a sharp decline in all major U.S. airports, effectively lowering the Long Island facility’s 1999 status as Southwest Airlines. caused the last period of growth.

In addition to falling victim to this recession and increasing fuel costs like these other terminals, it has historically been forced to operate in the shadow of New York’s three major airports, thus occupying most of the same market base, yet it depends on almost exclusively one carrier, the Southwest. , for his service. The growing trend of consolidation of airlines is leading to less likely airline companies, almost all of which have been operating at the airport in the past, while current fuel prices have led to the exploitation of regional airline stocks, which prompts the withdrawal of carriers. At one time, it provided hotspots in the South East of Atlanta (ASA), the Commerce to Inc. and the Clintland continent.

Choosing to deviate from the philosophy of unsecured, overestimated, secondary airports, on the basis of which it was established, and responding to the demand of large market participants, the south-west gradually redistributed aircraft assets from small to large cities to maximize revenue, but most of the developed Islip market.

Opposing this assessment, Southwest noted that this strategy reflects changes in the system industry and not those limited to MacArthur.

The Long Island market, however, includes factors outside the industry. Encouraged by the additional playing cards acquired after the acquisition of AirTran at La Gardia Airport, the south-west itself increased the frequencies and directions of higher profitability and load factor airport.

With a peak of 34 hours a day from Long Island, it gradually reduced its presence, stopping service in its two centralized cities, Nashville and Las Vegas, thus removing the flights they were introduced to.

In June 2012, the Chicago-Midway service was discontinued and moved to La Guardia, reducing the number of flights by almost half to 18.

The fact that he had to restore the airport, in many ways, has now become an obstacle to its growth. Due to its low structure and low fare, it has hampered other airlines that are considering providing services there, particularly on routes such as Florida, where there is a monopoly. However, the city authorities of Islip, as they walk on the road with tiles, are making serious efforts to maintain close contact with the airline, as the future of the airport depends on it.

However, that future depends more on the number of flights and the number of passengers. It also depends on the finances, and they were optimistic. Between 2010 and 2012, for example, the airport lost nearly $ 4.2 million, forcing it to use the $ 11 million plot of land for sale in 2009 to use funds raised from the sale of Long Island Railroad to compensate for the deficit. how to attract businesses to rent the spare parts of the last terminal. for the first time impose a general air landing fee. և Reduce staff counting և overtime.

But what is needed are much more mature strategies to defuse tensions. Based on the prevailing conditions, are there any?

2. Improving infrastructure և Recommendations.

As the region’s economic engine, Long Island MacArthur Airport can only operate if the city of Islip is looking for innovative ways to engage the airline’s services that provide fuel for it, which is why it has made a number of improvements to its infrastructure.

Upgrading of the $ 10.6 million terminal on the mountain range, which began in September 2011, has been modified to include vehicle upgrades and the introduction of a 750-foot umbrella on the island’s front to facilitate passenger droplets. և Pickups from both private and public transport. The program also included lighting, drainage and a security checkpoint.

It ended two years later, on January 10, at the expense of passenger fees collected through ticket sales, and a budget of $ 300,000.

Another landslide occurred on the west side of the airport, along Smithown Avenue. Demolition of 52,000 square meters of old invisible wood, steel and concrete block structures designed to engage operators and operators neutralized by the explosion.

Sheltair, one of its three fixed base operators, has agreed to invest $ 20 million over seven years from its 36 acres to a 25-year-old 40-year lease, paving the way for 29,000 square feet of office space and 161,000 square feet of space.

ExcelAire has also signed a 40-year lease, pledging $ 4.5 million to upgrade its facilities. Corporate-acquired Harvestrne Global Aviation Corporation, a South Carolina-based corporation, recently demolished the adjoining building, adding 32,000 square feet of space and a collar area to accommodate a new generation of ultra-large business aircraft. such as Bombardier Global Express, Gulfstream 650 and Falcon 7X.

At the airport, the service of Mid-Island Airlines followed the lawsuit with its own lease and repair contract.

The redefinition of the underpass was a reflection of the airway. The $ 4.5 million grant to the airport, 95 percent of which came from the FAA and the remaining 5 percent from the state and city transport department, helped simplify aircraft taxi drivers to the Runway 33L, reducing overtime, time and fuel consumption. . The plan was to extend Taxiway B, reopen Taxiway E and install airport signs, lights and sidewalk signs.

The applications were awarded to Rosemar Contracting of Patchogue (construction of a taxi road), JKL Engineering of Maryland (construction of taxi highways), Savik and Murray of Ronconcoma (removal of obstruction of runways and supply of equipment).

Other projects that resulted from the airport’s short, medium, and long-term master plans included light rail workers connecting the terminal to Long-Island Railway Station and extending the latter to 7,000 feet. to increase the safety of existing flights and to attract new, longer distances.

It was even suggested that the airport be converted into an international gateway. Initiating a public campaign in this direction, Sen. Charles Schumer, MacArthur’s longtime lawyer, held a press conference on June 10, 2013, urging the United States Customs and Border Patrol to set up a gateway to allow carriers to start flying to the Bahamas. : ուբ Aruba, often in demand for sand and sand travel.

The campaign, which was encouraged by interesting letters sent by a low-cost Mexican carrier, Interjet, and similar prices, but only offered by long-term European operator FlyA, could greatly expand the scope of the airport’s operations.

Although the Department of Homeland Security regularly reviewed the need for such requests, its own resources were already tight, and it is unlikely that it would be able to take over the potentially unnecessary facilities at the airport in New York. to deploy such flights without infrastructure changes.

These ambitious proposals have created their own Catch-22 situation, very similar to the airport’s faulty airline-passenger transportation cycle. As they managed to capture new carriers and routes, it was virtually impossible to justify their costs when the downturn was unlikely to require existing ones.

3. Airlines.

Although infrastructure upgrades and promising offers could improve the operational experience of existing carriers, it was eventually the city of Islip that was able to attract airlines that would fill the blood flow at Long Island Airport. So he made some significant efforts.

A. Existing airlines.

After relocating its aircraft to the southwestern La Guardia airport, the last presence of which was only in the shadow of the peak, it was unlikely that the frequencies or the throne service would rise in new directions in the prevailing economic conditions.

However, it stressed its continued commitment to the regional airport. That the provision of his 25-year contract could theoretically allow him to terminate all services after a decade, but he did not plan to do so.

On the contrary, they have been significantly pushed back by the fact that the 68% burden lost by the experiment two years ago, as a result of its service reduction strategy, increased at intervals to the current 92. And despite the fact that at the same time its presence in La Guardia and MacArthur seemed to weaken the same market, their respective businesses and leisure orientations dispelled this perception.

However, the city of Islip was successful in negotiating a new service with another existing air carrier, US Airways.

As MacArthur’s original tenant:, his longest-serving Allegheny at the time, which was later republished by USAir’s non-stop service, Washington Reagan National, was forced to revoke it after the 2001 flight restrictions were lifted. The flight was the second after the city of Philadelphia, easily exchanged with Delta, La Guardia.

In commemoration of the March 25, 2012, Air Daily Wisconsin operation, the first, one of the 50 daily CRJ-200 regional aircraft operated by the Air Daily Wisconsin, the airport’s fire trucks moved it with a water curtain at 12 noon. After 50. landing

According to: newsIslip Town City Supervisor Tom Croich said: “I look forward to working with our senators and congressmen to ensure that our city’s Long Island MacArthur Airport is adorned with the resources and attention it needs to live to its full potential.”

Ensuring the vital, urban connection of the country’s capital and eliminating the need for a train ticket from the Southwest Universal Comparable Baltimore Service, the planes were converted. On the 28th.

Senator Charles Schumer commented that the new connection only confirmed that Long Island is an unscrupulous market. Although US Airways accounted for only six to seven percent of its route, it was considered disproportionate because of the business-centric nature of its routes.

B. New Airlines.

The capture of the existing sworn service was only one side of the city’s strategic coin. The acquisition of the new ones was another, and for this purpose, a large business and civil society organization Long Island Association expressed interest in the possible service by sending a letter to three carriers, the above-mentioned US Airways, as well as JetBlue and Air. Canada.

Although the demand for expansion and expansion at the southwestern airports in the south-west has initially made an impression on MacArthur for most of the last decade, its backwardness has led to this trend. , minimal freezing. The carrier was expected to have the same positive effect.

Already covering the New York area at New York’s three major airports and two of its secondary airports, White Plains Westers County and New York’s Stuart International Airport, Islip was one of three new destinations he recently considered serving.

Schumer, who was instrumental in investing in the New York service in the early 1990s by providing 75 cents for realistic high-cost routes, described Long-Island Airport as a “missing piece of winding” for JetBlue. He, along with former Illinois City Supervisor Phil Nolan, emphasized their support for the deal with the carrier, both state and local.

Accompanied by Schumer, JetBlue CEO Dave Barger was given a three-day tour of the airport, which is part of the carrier’s evaluation process. Turning around, Schumer leaves for about 30 passengers. Schumer introduces him and advises him to try to persuade him to take the oath of office, prompting spontaneous applause.

Due to the combined population of 2.9 million people in the Nassau and Safolk districts, Barger called the region a “properly sized city” and, as the Caribbean was a growth destination for the airline, it favored the airport’s Caribbean basin and Latin demographics.

Since JetBlue looked at its South-Western rival in many ways, those methods, at least for the convenience of Long Island, have become a figment of the imagination. After winning an auction of eight games at La Guardia Airport, he replaced his New York partner with the ability to fly planes.

Despite the seemingly disappointing result, Barger stressed that given the optimal conditions, serving Islip “if, but when” is not the case.

Another airline that was already interested in the Islip service was Air Canada.

Market research has shown that 58 percent of passengers at the airport’s catchment area flew to Canada, while more than 30 industrial parks under Islip’s 4.2,200 acres further strengthened the need for such routes. In 2011, New York’s bilateral trade with the country amounted to $ 34.8 billion.

The Toronto ring, in particular, was considered a lucrative strategy. As the airline’s 60th cross-border connection, it would do so by unprotected operation of the airport and airspace, minimizing fuel costs and delays, while passengers would have access to its original hub to facilitate flights to Canada, Europe and Asia. As immigration and customs facilities were already available in Canada, no changes were needed in MacArthur.

But once again, the dominance of La Guardia only lowered it as a footnote. As WestJet, its strongest competitor at New York Airport, had just been awarded eight bets, it made more sense to focus its assets there on trying to keep its market share than moving them to Long Island.

Alaska’s PenAir, the penultimate carrier with which the city was exploring the new service, bore more fruit.

By purchasing an FAA Air Transport Promotion Plan that includes reduced fees for new applicants or new routers, the agreement has saved it $ 120,000 for office, rent, operating and landing costs, or a two-year equivalent, provided it continues to do so. after two years of service.

Բոստոն-Լոգանին փոխարինելով առատ օրեցօր Business Express- ը և դրան հաջորդած ամերիկյան Eagle Saab 340 ծառայությունը, բայց դադարեցվել է 2008 թ.-ին, PenAir- ը 2013 թ.-ի հուլիսի 25-ին բացեց երկու ամենօրյա շրջապտույտ նույն տուրբոպրոպ սարքավորումներով `նույն տուրբոպրոպ սարքավորմամբ: նրա աճող հյուսիսարևելյան երթուղային համակարգը, որն ընդգրկում էր Բար Հարբորը, Պլատսբուրգը և Պրեսկե Մենը:

Թռիչքները մեկնեցին առավոտյան 8: 40-ին և երեկոյան 7: 10-ին: ծագմամբ Բոստոնում, երեկոյան 7: 00-ին և 5: 30-ին: Միակողմանի ներածական գները սահմանվել են 119 դոլար:

Վերջին կապի փոխադրողը ՝ Allegiant Air- ը, հավասարապես իր թևերը բերեց Լոնգ-Այլենդ:

«Լաս Վեգասում գործող Allegiant տուրիստական ​​ընկերությունը», – ասվում է նրա մամուլի հաղորդագրության մեջ, «կենտրոնացած է փոքր քաղաքների ճանապարհորդներին համաշխարհային կարգի ժամանցի վայրերին կապելու վրա: Ընկերությունը գործում է ցածր փոխադրամիջոցներով, բարձր արդյունավետությամբ և բոլոր ինքնաթիռներով ուղևորատար ավիաընկերությամբ: նրա դուստր ձեռնարկությունը ՝ Allegiant Air- ը, միաժամանակ առաջարկելով նաև ճանապարհորդությանն առնչվող այլ ապրանքներ, ինչպիսիք են հյուրանոցային սենյակները, վարձակալության մեքենաներ և ներգրավման տոմսերը »:

Այն բանից հետո, երբ շուկայի ուսումնասիրությունները ցույց տվեցին Ֆլորիդայի արևմտյան ափերին օդային սպասարկման անհրաժեշտությունը, Իսլիպ քաղաքը վախեցրեց փոխադրողին, որն ինքն էլ գտավ ժողովրդագրությունը բարենպաստ ՝ հայտարարելով իր մտադրության մասին 2013 թվականի օգոստոսի 20-ին: Դա կլինի իր 99-րդ ԱՄՆ քաղաքը, որը սպասարկում էր 14-ից մեկը: արձակուրդի նպատակակետեր:

«Մենք ուրախ ենք ավելացնել հարավ-արևմտյան Ֆլորիդայի լողափերը, որպես մատչելի, հարմարավետ նպատակակետ տարբերակ Լոնգ-Այլենդի բնակիչների համար», – ասվում է մամուլի հաղորդագրության մեջ: «Մենք վստահ ենք, որ համայնքը կգնահատի Punta Gorda- ին չթողվող թռիչքի հարմարությունը»:

Allegiant- ն առաջարկելով 69-ական միակողմանի և 99 դոլար արժողությամբ ուղեվարձի ուղեվարձներ, բացեց Punta Gorda / Ft- ն: Մայերի ծառայությունը չորս ամիս անց ՝ դեկտեմբերի 20-ին, 166 ուղևոր MD-80- ով, որը գործում էր որպես Թռիչք 999 և մեկնում էր երեկոյան ժամը 7: 20-ին:

Պատասխանների հիման վրա ՝ լրացուցիչ սեզոնային և ամբողջ տարվա ծառայություն Միրթլի լողափում, Սանկտ Պետերբուրգում, Օրլանդոյում, Ֆրիթում: Համարված կլինեն Լաուդերդեյլը և Լաս Վեգասը:

4. Ընթացիկ ծառայություն.

Նախքան Long Island Island MacArthur օդանավակայանը կարող է տնտեսական ազդեցություն ունենալ տարածաշրջանի վրա, դրա համար անհրաժեշտ է բավարար օդային ծառայություններ: Մինչդեռ 2014-ի հունվարին առաջարկված 23 հեռացումներով, որոնցից երկուսը նույնիսկ ամեն օր չէին, այդ նպատակը դժվար թե իրականացվի:

Southwest- ը, որը դեռևս գերակշռող ավիաընկերությունն էր, առաջարկել էր հինգ թռիչք դեպի Բալթիմոր, երեքը ՝ Օռլանդո, երկուսը ՝ Ֆտ: Lauderdale- ը ՝ երկուսը West Palm Beach- ի, իսկ մեկը Tampa- ին կամ ընդհանուր թվով 13-ը շահագործվում են 737-700 ինքնաթիռներով: Սա միայն մեկն էր, քան առաջարկում էր 1999-ին, երբ այն առաջացրեց օդանավակայանի վերջին աճի շրջանը, այն վերադարձնելով իր ծագմանը:

ԱՄՆ Airways- ը, Allegheny ծառայության օրվանից հենակետով, առաջարկում էր ամեն օր չորս դե Havilland DHC-8 տուրբոպրոպ թռիչք իր Piedmont- ի տարածաշրջանային փոխադրամիջոցի միջոցով դեպի Ֆիլադելֆիա, իսկ երկուսը ՝ Վաշինգտոն ՝ Bombardier CRJ-200 տարածաշրջանային ինքնաթիռով ՝ Air Wisconsin- ով:

PenAir- ը Բոստոնին միացրեց երկու Saab 340 մեկնման և Allegiant Air- ը միացրեց Լոնգ-Այլենդի դաշտը երկու շաբաթական MD-80 ծառայություններով Ft- ին: Մայերս / Փունտա Գորդա:

Բոստոնին և Վաշինգտոնին իր կարևոր բիզնես կապերը վերականգնելը, յուրաքանչյուրը երկու չվերթով, որոնցում տեղավորվում էին 50 և ավելի քիչ ուղևորներ, ճանապարհորդներին հնարավորություն տվեց խուսափել La Guardia- ի հետ կապված գերբնակվածությունից և ուղևորությունների ժամանակներից, և դա քայլ էր ճիշտ ուղղությամբ: Բայց դա միայն երեխա էր: Եթե ​​Long Island MacArthur- ը նորից հասունանա տարածաշրջանային մատակարարի մեջ ՝ իր սեփական տնտեսական կայունությունը քաղելով վայրէջքի, գործառնական, գրասենյակի, զիջման և կայանման վճարների միջոցով, ապա նրան օդային ծառայության շատ ավելի մեծ ներարկում է անհրաժեշտ: